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Living machinesA handbook of research in biomimetics and biohybrid systems$
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Tony J. Prescott, Nathan Lepora, and Paul F.M.J Verschure

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780199674923

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199674923.001.0001

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Brain–machine interfaces

Brain–machine interfaces

(p.461) Chapter 49 Brain–machine interfaces
Living machines

Girijesh Prasad

Oxford University Press

A brain–machine interface (BMI) is a biohybrid system intended as an alternative communication channel for people suffering from severe motor impairments. A BMI can involve either invasively implanted electrodes or non-invasive imaging systems. The focus in this chapter is on non-invasive approaches; EEG-based BMI is the most widely investigated. Event-related de-synchronization/ synchronization (ERD/ERS) of sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs), P300, and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) are the three main cortical activation patterns used for designing an EEG-based BMI. A BMI involves multiple stages: brain data acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction, and feature classification, along with a device to communicate or control with or without neurofeedback. Despite extensive research worldwide, there are still several challenges to be overcome in making BMI practical for daily use. One such is to account for non-stationary brainwaves dynamics. Also, some people may initially find it difficult to establish a reliable BMI with sufficient accuracy. BMI research, however, is progressing in two broad areas: replacing neuromuscular pathways and neurorehabilitation.

Keywords:   BMI, EEG, event-related de-synchronization (ERD), event-related synchronization (ERS), steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), P300, neurofeedback, non-stationary brainwaves dynamics

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