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Tribology on the Small ScaleA Modern Textbook on Friction, Lubrication, and Wear$
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C. Mathew Mate and Robert W. Carpick

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780199609802

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199609802.001.0001

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Measuring Surface Forces

Measuring Surface Forces

(p.234) 8 Measuring Surface Forces
Tribology on the Small Scale

C. Mathew Mate

Robert W. Carpick

Oxford University Press

This chapter focuses on the two experimental techniques—the surface force apparatus (SFA) and the atomic force microscope (AFM)—that are commonly used for measuring molecular level forces that act between two surfaces at small separation distances. The first part of this chapter covers the fundamental principles of SFA and AFM design. The second half of this chapter illustrates the application of AFM to measuring surface forces with examples the measurement of van der Waals forces, atomic level repulsive forces, frictional forces, electrostatic double-layer forces, and meniscus forces from liquid films and from capillary condensation.

Keywords:   Surface forces, surface force apparatus (SFA), atomic force microscope (AFM), van der Waals force, meniscus, capillary condensation, electrostatic double-layer force, friction

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