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AnimalsA History$
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Peter Adamson and G. Fay Edwards

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780199375967

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199375967.001.0001

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Human and Animal Nature in the Philosophy of the Islamic World

Human and Animal Nature in the Philosophy of the Islamic World

(p.91) Chapter Four Human and Animal Nature in the Philosophy of the Islamic World

Peter Adamson

Oxford University Press

This chapter examines ethical attitudes toward animals in the Islamic world, alongside the rich psychological theories developed by thinkers, including Avicenna, to explain the sophisticated behaviors of which animals are capable. On the ethical front, al-Rāzī, Ibn Bājja, Ibn Ṭufayl, and the Brethren of Purity are shown to have presented remarkable defenses of benevolence towards animals. Regarding psychology, the chapter explores the range of cognitive powers ascribed to animals, focusing on the higher faculties that overlap with the so-called “internal senses” in humans.

Keywords:   Islam, ethics, Arabic, Avicenna, al-Rāzī, soul, psychology, Qurʾān

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