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The Psychological and Cultural Foundations of East Asian CognitionContradiction, Change, and Holism$
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Julie Spencer-Rodgers and Kaiping Peng

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780199348541

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199348541.001.0001

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Judging the World Dialectically versus Non-Dialectically

Judging the World Dialectically versus Non-Dialectically

Cultural Variations in Online Decision-Making Processes

Chapter:
(p.213) Chapter 7 Judging the World Dialectically versus Non-Dialectically
Source:
The Psychological and Cultural Foundations of East Asian Cognition
Author(s):

Takahiko Masuda

Liman Man Wai Li

Matthew J. Russell

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780199348541.003.0007

For over three decades, cultural psychologists have advocated the importance of cultural meaning systems and their effects on basic modes of perception and cognition. This chapter reviews findings which have demonstrated that culturally dominant ways of thinking influence people’s basic perceptual and cognitive processes: East Asians are more likely to endorse holistic thinking and dialectical thinking style when they process information, such that they incorporate more contextual information into their judgments of focal objects, and North Americans are more likely to endorse non-dialectical thinking and analytical thinking styles, by focusing on foreground information. The chapter also reviews recent findings related to higher cognitive processes in judgments and decision making processes. It emphasizes two lines of research showing how cultural differences in perception and cognition affect the online decision making process, one involving various online processes in decision making and the other involving how cultures experience indecisiveness in their decisions. Finally, this chapter introduces recent findings highlighting how cultural differences in perception and cognition affect how people make judgments involved in resource allocation, how cultural consistency values affect personality judgments, and how memory judgments are affected by neural cues. To close, it discusses the importance of this line of research and its future directions.

Keywords:   dialectical thinking, holistic thinking, analytic thinking, indecisiveness, on-line decision making, East Asians, North Americansalecti

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