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Ghana's Economic and Agricultural TransformationPast Performance and Future Prospects$

Xinshen Diao, Peter Hazell, Shashidhara Kolavalli, and Danielle Resnick

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198845348

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198845348.001.0001

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(p.277) Index

(p.277) Index

Source:
Ghana's Economic and Agricultural Transformation
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Note: Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t and f following the page number.

Abbey, Joseph62
Acheampong, Ignatius59t, 59, 75f, 176
Action Programme for Agricultural Production177
Archer Daniels Midland78
African Union211
Afrifa, Akwasi59t, 175
agribusiness8, 9
Africa3–4, 272–3
economic prospects and options259, 261, 262, 263, 266, 267
future prospects44
land rights78
political transformation78, 79
public sector112
recent developments270
resources, politics, and practicalities269
state–business relationships73
urbanization128
value chains210, 211, 226–7, 235
cocoa78, 215
organizing farmers into groups226
pineapples215, 216, 217
quality control228
tomatoes221, 234
Agricultural Development Corporation (ADC)174–5
agricultural extension264
agricultural intensification8, 10, 110, 114–15, 116–17f, 118
economic prospects and options258, 261
public expenditure194
public sector119
urbanization115, 118, 124, 131–9, 140
village perspectives of change160, 165 see also fertilizers; herbicides; insecticides; mechanization; pesticides; tractors
Agricultural Mechanization Services Centers see AMSECs
agricultural sector9–15
Africa1, 2, 3–4, 271–2
employment share2f
GDP share2f
assistance, average nominal rates of63f
democracy53
economic prospects and options257–67
economic transformation6, 7–8, 39, 45
employment26, 26t, 27f, 27
productivity, sources of growth in33, 34, 35t, 36, 36t, 37, 38t
structural change22
future prospects39, 40, 45
mechanization see mechanization
political transformation51, 60–1, 68, 76–81, 82
state–business relationships74, 76
public expenditure12–13, 64, 65f, 111–12, 119, 170–205, 267, 268
composition180–3, 181t, 182f, 182t
data sources171–2, 171t, 196–8t
growth effects183–93, 187–8t
new directions193–4
recent developments271
regression results199–205, 200t, 202–5t
trends and output per hectare171–83, 172f, 173f, 173t
value chains219, 235
recent developments269–71
resources, politics, and practicalities267–9
share of total employment123f
transformation97–120
growth patterns98–109
land and labor104–7
policy110–13
population pressure on land base113–15
(p.278) production98–102, 98t, 99t, 100t, 102t, 103f
rural livelihoods, incomes, and poverty108–9
technology see mechanization
urbanization115–18
urbanization121–40
farming practices133–6
farm size distribution131–3
modern input adoption136–9
rural employment124–8
trends122–4
welfare outcomes128–31
village perspectives of change142–68
farm model analysis152–8, 154t, 156t, 157f, 159t, 161–8, 162t
narratives145–52
selection of villages143–4, 143t
Agricultural Services Rehabilitation Project60
Agricultural Services Subsector Investment Program178
agroecological zones99–101
food crop distribution101–2, 102t
map101f
agro-processing see agribusiness
Akuffo, Frederick176
Akufo-Addo, Nana59t, 66, 67–8
Alien Compliance Orders Act59
Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)265
AMSECs (Agricultural Mechanization Services Centers)14, 112, 248, 249–51, 253–4, 253t, 265
effectiveness113
public expenditure193, 194, 195
value chains224
animal traction242, 244
Ankrah, Joseph Arthur59t, 175
Armed Forces Revolutionary Council177
Ashanti Goldfields Company62
Asian tigers8
Association of Ghana Industries73
authoritarianism61, 82
autocracy82
bananas98
Banda, Hastings57
Benin70, 71t, 75t
block farms112, 193–4, 195
Blue Skies78
Boahen, Adju63
Botchwey, Kwesi62, 67
Botswana
credit75t
developmental state55, 82
economic growth6, 20t
public management70, 71t
Brazil50, 75t, 249, 250
Burkina Faso220
Busia, Kofi59t, 59, 73n, 75f, 175
business environment see private sector
business services sector
employment28t, 29t, 30t, 31
productivity, sources of growth in35t, 36t, 37, 38t, 38
CAADP174, 178, 268, 270, 272
Callebaut78
Captains of Industry program74
Cargill78
cassava80–1
productivity99, 101, 102
village perspectives of change146, 154, 161, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168f
centralized planning22
Chile231
China
agro-processing227
AMSEC program249, 250
credit75t
growth20t, 32
manufacturing sector40
civil service8, 61, 68–9, 71–2, 268
wages67, 69
Civil Service Performance Improvement Program (CSPIP)69
Civil Service Reform Program69
clientelism53, 57
coastal agroecological zone106t, 107, 114, 124
cocoa
democracy64
economic prospects and options258
exports5, 98, 109, 213, 233, 258, 271
economic prospects and options260
growth210
(p.279) marketing230
public expenditure175, 190, 194, 195
quality control230
taxation194, 230
growth210
mechanization trends243
political transformation59, 60, 61, 62, 78
SAP60, 61
state–business relationships73n
productivity98, 99, 102
public expenditure12, 13, 111–12, 170, 194, 195, 268
growth effects183, 189–91, 193
trends and output per hectare172–80, 172f, 173f, 173t
urbanization122
value chain13, 211, 212, 213–15, 233
agro-processing226
chemical inputs222–3
Cocobod model230–2
credit224
quality control227, 228, 228t, 229
seeds222
taxation230
Cocoa Board see Cocobod
Cocoa Marketing Company231
Cocobod110, 180n, 213–14, 215, 233
cocoa processing78
public expenditure170, 181t, 194
growth effects189, 190
trends and output per hectare172–3, 174, 179, 180
tax revenue230
value chain230–2
chemical inputs222–3
organizing farmers into groups225
cocoyams101, 102
coffee210
cold storage263
public sector112
value chains
agro-processing227
pineapples217, 234
quality control228
collective bargaining53
communal conflict, sources of77t, 77
communications
public expenditure64, 65f, 182t, 182
village perspectives of change144
competitiveness225, 226
cocoa215, 230
pineapples217
rice219, 231, 232
tomatoes221, 231
construction sector
employment26, 26t, 28t, 29t, 30t, 31
productivity, sources of growth in35t, 36t, 38t, 38
Convention People’s Party59t, 174
cooperatives174, 175, 225
Corporate Village Enterprises (COVEs)79
corporatism56, 57
corruption71–2
Costa Rica80, 216, 217
Côte d’Ivoire
cocoa215, 260
developmental state58
pineapples79, 80, 216
political instability50
public management70, 71t
cotton146, 149
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)180, 180n, 181t
Council of Independent Business Associations73
cowpeas
productivity101, 102
village perspectives of change146, 149, 160
farm model analysis154, 161, 165, 167, 168f
credit
economic prospects and options266
interest rates67
palm oil79
political transformation72–3, 74–6, 75f, 75t
public expenditure175, 176, 193
value chains224–5
agro-processing227
rice226
village perspectives of change144, 164–5
crony capitalism57
crop rotations
economic prospects and options265
village perspectives of change149, 152, 160
farm model analysis161, 165, 165f
Crystal Ventures (Rwanda)58
Customary Land Secretariats78
(p.280) Danquah, J. B.73n
debt forgiveness67
decentralization5, 174, 177, 179, 268
defense spending182t
deliberation councils56
Del Monte216
democracy5, 8, 272
IIAG70
policy environment66
political transformation50, 51, 53–4, 58, 63–8
state–business relationships73
Department for International Development (DfID)69
Department of Forestry (DoF)181t
developmental states54–5, 82
neo-patrimonial57–8
District Assembly Common Fund174, 177
District Directors of Agriculture (DDAs)268
donors181, 262, 265, 268, 270, 272
economic prospects and options257–67
Economic Reform Program (ERP) see Structural Adjustment Program
economic transformation6–9, 19–46, 82, 257
employment26–31
future prospects39–45
agriculture40
manufacturing40–4
services44–5
investment in fundamentals58–63
per capita income20–1
productivity
aggregate growth23–5
sources of growth31–9
state–business relationships73
structural change21–3
ECOWAS222
education68, 81
female65
public expenditure64, 65f, 65, 66, 182t, 182, 195
growth effects183, 191, 192
village perspectives of change144
electricity144, 263
embedded autonomy56, 82
employment
Africa2f
agribusiness259
agricultural sector260
economic transformation8, 26–31
manufacturing sector41, 42, 42t, 44
productivity, sources of growth in35t, 36
future prospects40, 45
political transformation82
service sector6
urbanization122, 123f, 124–8, 127t, 129t see also labor
EPRDF58
Ethiopia50, 58
ethnic factors50
Eurobonds50
Export Development and Investment Fund (EDIF)74
Export-Import Bank of India249
exports
Africa272
cassava80
cocoa see cocoa: exports
economic prospects and options258, 259, 260
economic transformation8
future prospects45
gold62, 259
manufacturing sector39, 41
minerals5, 259
mining sector38
pineapples79–80, 112, 212, 215–17, 225, 229, 231, 233, 234, 260
political transformation61, 74
promotion112
public expenditure on agriculture174
shea nuts231
value chains210, 212, 223
quality control227, 229
fallow periods11, 104
arable land area113
economic prospects and options265
fertilizer use103
mechanization244
public expenditure194
value chains223
(p.281) village perspectives of change145–6, 151, 153, 160
Farmapine Ghana Ltd225
Farmer Based Organizations (FBOs)225, 267
farm incomes151t, 151, 160
farm model analysis153, 158, 159t
farm input costs150, 150t, 158
farm size105–7, 106t, 107t
crop dynamics147
fertilizer use102
labor use147
mechanization148t
demand245, 246–7, 254
supply252
trends243t, 243
rural nonfarm economy108, 108t
trends247t
urbanization115, 118, 131–3, 132t, 133f, 140
agricultural intensification134t, 134–6, 135t, 137t, 137–8
village perspectives of change145, 145t, 149, 150, 150t, 151, 160
farm model analysis153, 155–7, 156t, 158, 159t
Farmtrac249–50
Federation of Associations of Ghana Exporters73
Felda78
female education65
fertilizers11, 102–3, 103t, 104t
economic prospects and options263, 265
planting for food and jobs program270
prices110
public expenditure176, 193
subsidies112, 113, 134, 138, 176, 193, 194, 195
cocoa215, 223
SAP60
value chains223
urbanization115–18, 134t, 134, 136–9, 137t, 138t, 140
value chains222–3
cocoa212, 215, 223, 230
rice219
tomatoes221
village perspectives of change155, 156, 158, 159t, 165, 166–7, 167t
finance sector
employment26, 26t see also credit
firm size
agricultural sector see farm size
manufacturing sector42–3, 42t
first mover strategies268–9, 272
fiscal management51, 53–4, 67, 81
Food and Agricultural Sector Development Policy (FASDEP II)78, 178
food crisis (2008)77
food demand3, 14
food imports98, 109, 112, 271
economic prospects and options258, 259
political transformation59
public expenditure on agriculture176
value chains210, 212
food security191
foreign direct investment (FDI)62, 81
economic prospects and options259, 262
land rights77
foreign exchange60, 191
forest agroecological zone99, 124
agricultural intensification114–15, 116f
farm size106t, 107
food crops101–2, 102t
map101f
formal sector
employment27, 28t, 29t, 30t, 31
manufacturing43
fruit juices210
fundamentals
agricultural transformation110
democracy54
economic prospects and options257
economic transformation7, 31–2, 33, 39, 45
productivity, sources of growth in37
future prospects9
planting for food and jobs program270
political regime52
political transformation49, 50, 58–63
value chains210
G7211
Germany50, 75t
Ghana Chamber of Mines73
Ghana Cocoa Board see Cocobod
Ghana Commercial Agricultural Project77, 178
(p.282) Ghana Free Zones Board (GFZB)73
Ghana Incentive-Based Risk-Sharing System for Agricultural Lending (GIRSAL)266
Ghana Investors Agency Council74
globalization190, 226, 272
gold62, 258, 259
government see public sector
government services sector
employment26, 26t
productivity, sources of growth in35t, 36, 36t, 38t
gross domestic product (GDP)
Africa1, 2f
aggregate growth23–4, 24f, 25t
countries with thirty years’ uninterrupted growth in20t
economic transformation20, 21–2, 23, 39, 45
future prospects39
per capita62
sectoral shares21f, 22t
service sector6, 44
sources of growth35t, 36
groundnuts
productivity101, 102
village perspectives of change146, 147, 160
farm model analysis154, 161, 165, 167, 168f
Grow Africa Investment Forum262
Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (2006–9)64
Guinness Ghana Breweries Limited80
Hawaii Pineapple Research Institute216
health
insurance81
public expenditure64, 65f, 65, 67, 182t, 182, 191, 192, 195
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)64, 66, 67, 74
herbicides103
economic prospects and options263
urbanization115, 134–5, 135t, 137t, 138t, 138–9, 140
village perspectives of change147, 148, 150, 150t, 152, 160
farm model analysis158, 165
hired labor see labor
Hong Kong54
Houphouët-Boigny, Félix58
human capital53, 183
human development (IIAG)70f, 70
human rights (IIAG)70f, 70
Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG)69–71, 70f, 71t
imports
fertilizers113
food see food imports
rice98, 112, 218, 219, 227–8, 234
tomatoes112, 220, 221
tractors241, 242, 242f, 249–50, 251–2, 254
import substitution5, 14, 58
Africa272
developmental states55
economic prospects and options258, 259, 260
economic transformation41, 45
first mover strategy269
public expenditure on agriculture176
value chains210, 212, 233
pineapples215
tomatoes229
incomes see per capita incomes
India20, 20t, 249–50
induced innovation theory10, 114–15, 119
mechanization demand245, 247
urbanization124, 133, 140
industrialization5, 6
Africa3, 271, 272
economic transformation21, 22
pineapple value chain215
SAP41
tomato value chain220
industrial policy43, 45, 74, 259
developmental states54, 55, 56
industrial sector
Africa1
employment share2f
economic prospects and options257, 259
economic transformation6
employment26t, 27f, 27
structural change22–3
future prospects41, 45
inflation62
informal sector
economic transformation39
employment27, 28t, 29t, 30t, 31
manufacturing41, 43–4
(p.283) productivity, sources of growth in33, 34, 38, 39
services44
urbanization128, 129t
infrastructure
economic prospects and options263
IIAG70f, 70
political transformation81
public expenditure64, 182, 184
public sector112, 119
value chains
agro-processing227
pineapples234
quality control228 see also roads
insecticides103
urbanization134–5, 135t, 137t, 138t, 138–9
village perspectives of change150, 150t, 165 see also pesticides
interest rates67, 72, 266
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
aid disbursements temporarily halted67
negotiations with Ghana (2014)69
SAP6, 20, 59, 60, 66
Investment Code62
investment environment8
agricultural sector9, 265
economic fundamentals58–63
interest rates67
land rights77–8
political transformation60, 74, 81
public expenditure184 see also foreign direct investment; public expenditure
irrigation272
economic prospects and options261, 266
palm oil79
public expenditure193, 195
recent developments271
value chains222
rice114, 219
tomatoes220, 221
Italy227
Japan54, 75t
John Deere250
joint ventures62
Kagame, Paul57–8
Kenya5, 71t, 75t
Korea20, 20t, 50, 54
Kpong Irrigation Project (KIP)219
Kufuor, John Agyekum59t
credit75f
palm oil78
public expenditure on agriculture178
state–business relationships72, 73–4
labor104–7
cocoa value chain214
costs see wages
economic prospects and options261–2
growth105t
mechanization demand245–6, 246t, 247
productivity see labor productivity
technology103, 104t
urbanization137t, 138t, 138–9, 140
village perspectives of change147, 150, 150t, 152, 160
farm model analysis155, 156, 158, 159t see also employment
labor productivity
Africa271–2
aggregate growth23–5, 24f, 25t
agricultural transformation9, 10, 11, 12, 110
economic prospects and options257, 258, 260
economic transformation7–8, 39, 45
employment31
manufacturing sector41, 42–3, 42t, 44
service sector44
sources of growth33, 34, 35t, 36, 36t, 37–9, 38t
future prospects39, 40
public sector113
trends104–5, 106f, 118
village perspectives of change155, 156–7, 157f, 160
labor unions61
land104–7
policy263
population pressure113–15
productivity see land productivity
rights76–8, 227, 235
scarcity see land scarcity
(p.284) urbanization127, 128f, 131–3, 132t, 133f
village perspectives of change145–6, 153, 164, 164t see also farm size
land productivity
agricultural transformation9, 10, 11, 12
economic prospects and options258, 261, 266
future prospects40
public expenditure173f, 173, 174
new directions194
trends175, 176, 177–8, 179
public sector113
trends104–5, 106f, 118
village perspectives of change150–1, 150t, 160
farm model analysis155, 156–7, 157f, 166 see also agricultural intensification
land rights76–8, 227, 235
land scarcity11, 12, 119
economic prospects and options258, 261
labor productivity39
mechanization demand245
village perspectives of change145, 151, 160
Limann, Hilla75f, 177
literacy65, 129, 191, 192
Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty Program (LEAP)65
livestock98
living standards25
Local Government Law174, 177, 179
Mahama, John Dramani59t, 65, 75f, 178
Mahindra250
maize
economic prospects and options260, 261, 264
mechanization254
productivity99, 101, 102
public expenditure193
SAP60
seeds103, 155, 156, 166–7, 167t
value chain225, 229, 232
village perspectives of change146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 160
farm model analysis154, 155, 156, 161, 163, 165, 165f, 166–7, 168f
yields150, 150t, 166–7, 167t
Malawi
credit75t
economy61
neo-patrimonial developmental state58
political instability50
public management70, 71t
Malaysia78
mangoes260
manufacturing sector
Africa1
GDP share2f
economic prospects and options257, 258, 259
economic transformation6, 39
employment26, 26t, 27f, 27, 28t, 29t, 30t, 31
productivity, sources of growth in33, 34, 35t, 36t, 37, 38t, 38–9
structural change22, 23
future prospects40–4, 45
state–business relationships73
urbanization128, 129t
wages53
Maputo Declaration111, 112, 179, 180, 194
market access139, 232
marketing
economic prospects and options263
value chains225, 226, 235, 266
cocoa213–14, 230–1, 233
pineapples216–17, 231
rice218
tomatoes220, 231
Market-Oriented Agricultural Project (MOAP)232, 267
Marshall plan for agriculture270
Masara N’zarki225
Mauritius6, 20t, 55, 57, 82
MDBS64
mechanization11–12, 13–14, 104t, 241–54
demand243–8
economic prospects and options258, 265–6
public expenditure193, 194
SAP60
supply248–52
trends242–3, 243t
urbanization115, 135t, 135–6, 137t, 138t, 138–9, 140
(p.285) value chains223–4
rice219
village perspectives of change148, 148t, 150, 150t, 152
farm model analysis158, 165 see also AMSECs; technology; tractors
Mexico75t
Millennium Challenge Corporation76
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)19, 64–5
millet101, 146
Mills, John Evans Atta50, 59t, 65, 75f, 178
mineral exports5, 259
mining sector
employment26, 26t, 28t, 29t, 30t, 31
future prospects39–40, 45
joint ventures62
productivity, sources of growth in35t, 36t, 38t, 38
SAP60
Ministry of Agriculture60, 180n, 226, 249
Ministry of Education, Sports, and Science180n
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning180n
Ministry of Fisheries (MoF)180n, 181t
Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA)180n
budget113
devolution268
public expenditure on agriculture180, 181t, 181, 193, 195
Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development180n
Ministry of Manpower Development and Employment180n
Ministry of Private Sector Development (MPSD)74
Ministry of Public Sector Reform69
Ministry of Roads and Transport180n
Ministry of Trade and Industry76, 180n
Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs180n
mortality rates129
Mozambique71t, 75t
Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative64
multinational corporations73
Mutharika, Bingu wa58
National Agricultural Investment Strategy (NAIS)270
National Democratic Congress (NDC)50, 59t, 64, 81
agricultural sector76
credit75f
elections
199263
201667
fiscal management67
HIPC66
political budget cycle67
public expenditure on agriculture177, 178
social welfare schemes65
state–business relationships73, 74
National Fertilizer Subsidy Program193
National Food Buffer Stock Company (NAFCO)112, 193, 194, 195
National Health Insurance Scheme65
National Liberation Council59t, 175
National Redemption Council59t, 176
National Seed Council222, 264
neo-patrimonialism52, 57–8
New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition211, 235, 262
New Patriotic Party (NPP)50, 59t, 64, 81
agricultural sector76, 78, 79
elections
199263
201667
political budget cycle67
public expenditure on agriculture178
social welfare schemes65
state–business relationships72, 73–4, 76
VAT66
Nigeria70, 71t, 75t
Nkrumah, Kwame58, 59t, 75f, 174, 175
Northern Rural Growth Project (NRGP)232, 267
Obeng, P. V.62
oil
aggregate productivity growth24
future prospects39–40, 44, 45, 258, 259
productivity, sources of growth in38
oil palm78–9, 112
“one district one factory” program68, 270, 271
“one village one dam” program270, 271
(p.286) onions193
Operation Feed Your Factories211
Operation Feed Your Industries176
Operation Feed Yourself59, 176, 211, 270
Optimizing Fertilizer Recommendations in Africa (OFRA)265
palm oil78–9, 112
patrimonialism52
People’s National Party177
per capita incomes (PCI)5, 62
aggregate productivity growth23–4, 24f, 25t
agricultural sector110
economic prospects and options257
economic transformation6, 7, 20–1, 20t, 31
future prospects39
rice value chain217
rural108–9, 109t
sources of growth31
urbanization128–9
personal services sector44
employment28t, 29t, 30t, 31
productivity, sources of growth in35t, 36, 36t, 37, 38t
pesticides104t
public expenditure193
value chains222
cocoa215
village perspectives of change165 see also insecticides
pineapples
exports79–80, 112, 212, 215–17, 225, 229, 231, 233, 234, 260
political transformation79–80
public sector112
value chain13, 212, 215–17, 233–4
agro-processing226, 227
chemical inputs223
credit224
mechanization224
organizing farmers into groups225, 226
quality control228, 228t, 229
support231, 232
plantains98, 101, 102
Planting for Food and Jobs (PFJ) program68, 270
policy environment8
agricultural transformation9–10, 110–13
decentralization269
democracy66
economic prospects and options262–3
economic transformation45–6, 62
future prospects39, 40
political transformation49, 51, 81–2
value chains221–33
political budget cycle53, 66–7
political instability/stability50, 58–9, 81, 272
political participation (IIAG)70f, 70
political regimes52
timeline59t
political stability/instability50, 58–9, 81, 272
political transformation8–9, 49–82
democracy53–4, 63–8
developmental states54–5
neo-patrimonial57–8
economic fundamentals, investment in58–63
implications for agricultural transformation76–81
limitations68–72
state–business relationships55–8, 72–6
population growth245
port facilities217, 228, 263
poverty19
political transformation64, 65, 73, 74
rural109
urbanization129–31, 130t, 140
Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS)64, 74
Presidential Delivery Unit Model69
President’s Special Initiatives (PSIs)74, 76, 78–9, 80, 81, 178, 180n
public expenditure on agriculture181t
Private Enterprise Foundation (PEF)73
private sector
Africa272, 273
business environment (IIAG)70f, 70
democracy64
economic prospects and options262
economic transformation23, 41
first mover strategies269
mechanization248, 249, 250, 251–2, 253–4, 253t
planting for food and jobs program271
(p.287) value chains211, 234–5
agro-processing226, 227
chemical inputs222, 223
cocoa230
mechanization224
organizing farmers into groups225
pineapples231
policies221
privatization174
cocoa value chain230
economic transformation23
political transformation60, 73
SAP41
tomato factories220
Produce Buying Company174
Producer Price Review Committee213
productivity
Progress Party59t, 175
Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC)59t, 59, 61–2, 63
credit75f
public expenditure on agriculture177
repression66
state–business relationships72
public expenditure
by sector64, 65f
Public Financial Management Reform Program (PUF-MARP)69
public management (IIAG)70f, 70–2, 71t
public–private partnerships
agricultural transformation12
future prospects40
value chains221 see also state–business relationships
public sector
Africa272–3
agricultural policy110–13
agricultural transformation9–15
economic prospects and options262–3, 265–6
economic transformation6, 8, 45–6
manufacturing41
structural change22–3
expenditure see public expenditure
first mover strategies269
mechanization241, 248–51, 253–4, 253t
recent developments269–71
resources, politics, and practicalities267–9
value chains211–12, 233–5
cocoa213–15
pineapples215–16
policies221–33
tomatoes220 see also political transformation
Public Sector Reinvention and Modernization Strategy (PUSER-MOS)69
Public Services Commission69
public transportation139
quality control
public sector112
value chains227–9, 232
cocoa213, 214, 230, 233
pineapples217
rice218, 234
tomatoes220, 234
Quality Control Company (QCC)214, 231
rainfall patterns147, 149, 152, 160
Rawlings, Jerry John51, 59t, 59, 61–3
credit75f
economic transformation6, 8
elections
199263
199667
HIPC66
political transformation82
public expenditure on agriculture177
repression66
state–business relationships72, 73, 74, 76
regional factors
agricultural production99–102
agricultural transformation9
farm size105–7, 106t
first mover strategies269
mechanization242–3, 245–7, 251
public expenditure on agriculture181–2
(p.288) research and development (R&D)272
economic prospects and options263–4
mechanization251, 254
public expenditure183, 193, 195
public sector112, 119
recent developments271
value chains235
pineapples216
rice
Asia’s green revolution210, 269
economic prospects and options260
imports98, 112, 218, 219, 227–8, 234
intensification114
productivity99, 101–2
public expenditure193
SAP60
value chain13, 212, 217–19, 233, 234
agro-processing226
mechanization224
organizing farmers into groups226
quality control227–8, 228t, 229
support231–3
taxation229
village perspectives of change146, 147, 150
yields150
roads272
democracy64
economic prospects and options263
political transformation64, 67, 80
public expenditure67, 112, 182, 191, 192, 195
value chains228–9
pineapples234
village perspectives of change144
rural areas
livelihoods, incomes, and poverty108–9, 108t, 109t
political transformation61
population10, 104, 109, 113–15, 114t, 122f, 144, 144t
Rawlings’ vote share (1992)63
spatial typology122–4
map125f
population densities124, 126t see also agricultural sector; rural nonfarm economy
rural nonfarm economy10, 108–9, 108t
economic prospects and options261
employment26, 126
mechanization246
urbanization115, 118, 122, 133, 139–40
employment126
regional factors124
welfare outcomes131
village perspectives of change151t, 151
wages104
Rwanda50, 57–8, 70, 71t
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)57–8
savannah agroecological zone11, 99
agricultural intensification115, 117f
farm size105, 106t, 107
food crops101–2, 102t
land base114
map101f
mechanization246, 247, 249
technology103
urbanization123, 140
village perspectives of change142–68
narratives145–52
selection of villages143–4, 143t
Sea-Freight Pineapple Exporters Ghana (SPEG)216
seeds103
economic prospects and options262, 263, 264–5
planting for food and jobs program270
public expenditure176, 193
public sector112
value chains222, 232, 235
cocoa214
maize103, 155, 156, 166–7, 167t
rice219
tomatoes220–1
village perspectives of change149, 150, 150t, 160
farm model analysis155, 156, 158, 165
Senegal61, 70, 71t, 75t, 219
service sector5
Africa1–3
employment share2f
GDP share2f
democracy53
economic prospects and options257, 258
economic transformation6, 7
employment26, 26t, 27f, 27
(p.289) productivity, sources of growth in33, 34
structural change21, 22, 23
future prospects44–5
urbanization121
shea nuts231
Singapore20, 20t, 54
social welfare53, 64–5, 81
soil fertility11
economic prospects and options265
land rights77
public expenditure194
urbanization140
value chains223
village perspectives of change146, 147, 149, 151–2, 160, 166 see also fertilizers
Soil, Land, and Water Management Project179
sorghum101, 146, 193
South Africa
credit75t
developmental state55, 82
Eurobonds50
public management70, 71t
state–business coalitions57
South Korea20, 20t, 50, 54
soybeans146, 147, 149, 193
standards of living25
state–business relationships55–7, 72–6, 82
Africa273
economic prospects and options263
New Alliance for Feed Security and Nutrition235
resources, politics, and practicalities268
state farms174, 175, 176
state-owned enterprises
agro-processing226
economic transformation22–3, 41
political transformation72
urbanization122
stock exchange60
Structural Adjustment Institutional Support Project (SAIS)68–9
Structural Adjustment Program (SAP)3, 6, 19, 20, 21, 22, 45, 272
aggregate productivity growth24
agricultural sector110
democracy63
developmental state8
economic prospects and options257
employment26
long-term effects67
manufacturing sector41, 42
political transformation51, 59–61
productivity, source of growth in32
public expenditure on agriculture177
state–business relationships72
state-owned enterprises23
technocracy62
structural change
Africa3
economic prospects and options257, 259
economic transformation7, 8, 21–3, 31–2, 33, 39, 45
productivity, sources of growth in36, 36t, 37
future prospects39
political regime52
political transformation49–50, 51, 72, 81
value chains211
subsidies67, 112
cocoa value chain215
fertilizers see fertilizers: subsidies
food production6
mechanization241, 248, 249, 254
AMSECs250
planting for food and jobs program270
public expenditure on agriculture174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 193, 195
Supreme Military Council176
Taiwan54, 226
Tanzania62, 70, 71t, 75t
tariffs
tractors251
value chains228, 229
rice232, 234
tomatoes231
taxation110
political transformation62, 66, 71n, 74
value chains229–30
agro-processing227
cassava80
cocoa194, 213
(p.290) pineapples234
tomatoes231
VAT66
technocracy82
developmental states54
neo-patrimonial57
economic transformation61, 62
technology102–4
economic prospects and options260, 261
induced innovation theory114–15, 119
planting for food and jobs program271
public expenditure183
public sector112
urbanization115
value chains235
village perspectives of change155, 165 see also mechanization
terms of trade110
Thailand20t, 210, 218, 219, 226
timber sector60, 73n
tobacco146
tomatoes
imports112, 220, 221
public expenditure193
value chain13, 212, 219–21, 233, 234
agro-processing226, 227
credit224
mechanization224
organizing farmers into groups226
quality control228, 228t, 229
support231, 232
village perspectives of change146, 167
total factor productivity (TFP)24–5, 25t, 53
tractors13–14, 103, 241, 253–4
demand244, 247
economic prospects and options265, 266
imports241, 242, 242f, 249–50, 251–2, 254
public expenditure194
supply248, 249–51
trends242–3
urbanization135
value chains224
rice219
village perspectives of change146, 147, 148, 152, 160
farm model analysis155, 156, 158, 159t, 165
trade policy3, 110, 119, 262
trade services sector39, 44
employment26, 26t, 28t, 29t, 30t, 31
productivity, sources of growth in35t, 36, 36t, 37, 38t
Trade Union Congress (TUC)61
transition agroecological zone11, 99
farm size105, 106t
food crops101–2, 102t
land base114
map101f
mechanization246, 247
technology103
urbanization123, 140
village perspectives of change142–68
farm model152–8, 154t, 156t, 157f, 159t, 161–8, 162t
narratives145–52
selection of villages143–4, 143t
transportation272
economic prospects and options263
public139
public expenditure64, 65f, 182t, 182
public sector112
road see roads
value chains227, 228
transport services sector
employment26t, 28t, 29t, 30t, 31
productivity, sources of growth in35t, 36t, 38t, 38
Turkey75t
Uganda70, 71t, 75t
unemployment5
United Kingdom75t
United States64, 75t
urban areas
political transformation61
population122, 122f
Rawlings’ vote share (1992)63
urbanization5, 115–18, 121–40
Africa1, 271, 272
agricultural transformation10
economic prospects and options261
economic transformation6
employment26
farming practices133–6
farm size distribution131–3
mechanization demand245, 247–8
(p.291) modern input adoption136–9
rural employment124–8
service sector44
trends122–4
welfare outcomes128–31
Uruguay55
USAID181, 267
utilities sector
employment26, 26t, 28t, 29t, 30t, 31
productivity, sources of growth in35t, 36, 36t, 38t, 38
value-added per worker
aggregate growth23–4, 24f
manufacturing sector42, 42t
value-added tax (VAT)66
value chains8–9, 210–35
Africa273
agricultural transformation10, 12, 13
cocoa213–15
economic prospects and options261, 262, 263, 266–7
pineapples215–17
planting for food and jobs program270
policies221–33
public sector111, 112, 119
resources, politics, and practicalities268, 269
rice217–19
tomatoes219–21
Vietnam20t, 210, 218, 269
Vision 202058, 73, 81
wages
agricultural sector9, 10, 105t, 110
civil service67, 69
democracy53
labor productivity118
manufacturing sector43
mechanization demand246, 247, 254
political budget cycle66, 67
rural nonfarm economy104
urbanization118
village perspectives of change158, 160, 168
warehouses228, 229
water65, 144
Weberian bureaucracy52, 55
welfare outcomes128–31
wheat98, 210, 269
World Bank
aid disbursements temporarily halted67
Economic Management Capacity Building Project69
Farmapine Ghana Ltd225
privatization73
SAP6, 20, 60
Structural Adjustment Institutional Support Project68–9
yams
productivity98, 99, 101, 102
value chain232
village perspectives of change146, 147, 149
farm model analysis154, 161, 163, 164, 165, 167, 168f
Zambia
credit75t
decentralization5
economy61
one-party rule62
policymaking structure62
political instability50
public management70, 71t
Zenawi, Meles58