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Essentials of Landscape Ecology$
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Kimberly A. With

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198838388

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198838388.001.0001

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Landscape Effects on Community Structure and Dynamics

Landscape Effects on Community Structure and Dynamics

(p.434) 10 Landscape Effects on Community Structure and Dynamics
Essentials of Landscape Ecology

Kimberly A. With

Oxford University Press

Ecological communities consist of species that interact to varying degrees within the same geographical area, and so by definition exist within a landscape context. This chapter begins by reviewing the measures and different scales at which species diversity can be assayed, including the use of spatial partitioning to evaluate multiscale patterns of diversity. The chapter then reviews correlates of species diversity, including explanations for latitudinal and elevational diversity gradients, before considering how habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to influence species diversity. The chapter tackles the debate surrounding the relative importance of habitat amount versus fragmentation in predicting species’ responses to landscape change, and highlights the importance of studying these effects at a landscape rather than patch scale. The chapter concludes with a discussion of landscape effects on different types of species interactions, and how interactions among species in different communities can give rise to metacommunity structure and dynamics.

Keywords:   species diversity, community structure, habitat loss and fragmentation, species-area relationship, theory of island biogeography, competitive coexistence, predator-prey dynamics, host-parasitoid dynamics, plant-pollinator interactions, metacommunity

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