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The Handbook of Political, Social, and Economic Transformation$
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Wolfgang Merkel, Raj Kollmorgen, and Hans-Jürgen Wagener

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198829911

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198829911.001.0001

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China’s Transformations in the Twentieth Century: Economic, Political, and Cultural Interdependencies

China’s Transformations in the Twentieth Century: Economic, Political, and Cultural Interdependencies

Chapter:
(p.293) Chapter 28 China’s Transformations in the Twentieth Century: Economic, Political, and Cultural Interdependencies
Source:
The Handbook of Political, Social, and Economic Transformation
Author(s):

Carsten Herrmann-Pillath

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198829911.003.0028

This chapter approaches China’s sequence of transformations in the ‘short’ twentieth century between the collapse of empire 1911 and World Trade Organization entry in 2001 against the background of discussing the nature of the Imperial from which this arduous and violent process started out. During that period, immense political efforts were directed at tackling the perceived legacy of social and cultural impediments to economic modernization and building national strength, though with radically different means, such as switching from Maoism to reform policies in 1978. The chapter analyses core features of change such as the role of the rural sector, the weak penetration of society by formal bureaucratic institutions of the state, and the interaction between institutional change and transformation of social structure. After detailing major aspects of recent economic reforms, the key conclusion is that throughout the twentieth century until present times, economic transformation remains inextricably intertwined with the secular process of modern state building.

Keywords:   China’s economic reforms, Cultural Revolution, late Imperial China, state building, fiscal system, Chinese Communist Party, forced industrialization, dualist socio-economic structure, culturalism, territorial competition

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