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Silver, Butter, ClothMonetary and Social Economies in the Viking Age$

Jane Kershaw, Gareth Williams, Søren Sindbæk, and James Graham-Campbell

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198827986

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198827986.001.0001

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(p.297) Index

(p.297) Index

Source:
Silver, Butter, Cloth
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Diagrams, tables etc. are given in italics

Abbasid dirhams
in the Åbo hoard45
in the Buddegård hoard50
metal composition of209–10, 212
in the Nordre Stensebygård hoard48
in the Skovsholm hoard38
used as coin-pendants127–8, 135–9
weight of16–17
Abbasid dynasty17, 24, 36, 155–6, 159, 210
Åbo hoard40, 44–5, 46–7, 50, 52
‘active’ hoards51
Adalbert, Archbishop98
Adam of Bremen98
Adam and Eve94
Æthelred II59, 128, 245
Æthelstan91
Afghanistan8, 134, 137, 210
Aghlabid dinars159
al-Basra mint50
Aldborough, Yorkshire236
Alfred the Great235–6
al marco minting system16
al-Muhammadiyya (Tehran) mint16
al pezzo minting system16–17
al-Shash (Tashkent) mint17, 155
Alþingisreitur, Reykjavík267
AMS dating265, 267
Anastasijevka hoard156–7
Anglo-Saxons
coins43, 134–5, 208–9, 217, 235, 246
Agnus Dei coins130
pierced coins124, 128
gold jewellery161
and Hiberno-Scandinavian coinage83
and irregular cross pennies131
silver strap from Füsing220
and Viking Age coinage4 see also British Isles; Great Britain
Annals of the Four Masters,
sub anno 894116
sub anno 919109, 115
Annals of Ulster sub anno 853106, 109
Aquitaine, France134, 189, 196
Arabic gold dinars6, 148
Archaeometric perspective8, 206
Archibald, Marion242
Ard na Scela, a mhic na ccuach (Flann mac Lonáin)108–9, 117
arm-rings50, 133, 243
from Sweden230
ARSNY site (‘A Riverine Site Near York’)235–6, 246
Aska, Sweden154–5, 162
atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS)213
Austrvegr (eastern route)6, 164
Auzeville hoard200
Avaldsnes, Norway229
Baghdad, Iraq210–11 See also Madinat al-Salam (Baghdad) mint
Bahrfeldt, Emil61–2, 61–2n1
Balkh mint210
Ballacamaish hoard244
Ballaghkeeran, Killinure, Ireland116
Ballycastle (2) hoard83
Baltic region3, 8, 16, 21–2, 24, 32, 37–8, 185, 222
Baltic Sea ware42–3, 47, 52
Barrett, J. H.291
baugr (marks of silver)283
Beadlam, North Yorkshire238
Bedale hoard117, 239, 246
Bek-Pedersen, K.270–1
Bender Jørgensen, L.261
Bergen, Norway281
Bernhard II, Duke43
Bezliudovka hoard22
biographies (object/ hoard) 33, 134
Bi/Pb ratio (bismuth/lead)207–8, 219
Birka, Sweden
Grave 632163
Grave 791128
Grave 844135–9, 136–7
Grave 963128
Other graves124, 128, 150, 160, 261
Birsay, Orkney292, 279 (map)
bismuth200, 207–10, 217, 219
Blackburn, Mark81, 132, 137, 159, 227, 234, 245
blanching191, 242
‘bleikt silfir’ currency253
blue dye261
Boleslaus II59
Boleslaus III61
Bolin, S.169, 169n1
Book of Durrow115
Book of James270–1
Bornholm, Denmark3, 32–9, 37–8, 43, 50–4, 232
Bornholm Museum35–6, 38, 40, 42, 45, 47
brass209, 215
(p.298) Brega kingship106
British Isles253, 264, 285
‘broken fields’7, 180
Brunanburh, battle of91
Brunschweig museum64, 67–8
Búalög (law code)269
Buckquoy, Orkney285
Buddegård hoard40, 49, 53
Bukhara mint17, 50, 210
Bulgar, Volga19, 23, 27–8, 222
bullion economy10, 32, 53, 227, 233, 235, 237, 245, 246
Burström, M.170, 178
butter economy
archaeology of production284–91, 286–90
as currency2, 10–11
discussion291–2
introduction278–80, 279
paying butter skat282–4
in subsistence and trade280–2
butter skat system11, 282–3, 285, 291–2
Buyid dirhams17
Byzantine art161
Byzantine coins26, 129–30, 133, 138
Byzantine gold231
Byzantine solidi156, 159
Cairpre Cam, Bishop109
Carlsson, D.183
Carolingian coinage
coin-pendants126, 128, 133–4, 138–9
and Malmer KG7217
metal composition of209
and silver provenancing195–7
from Toulouse8, 199–202
from the Watlington hoard235
Carolingian gilded silver vessel239
Carolingian gold imports229
Carolingian jewellery161
Casey, J.170
Castle Street (2) hoard83
cattle9, 105, 107, 115, 282–3, 285, 287–91, 291
Cénel Conaill108–9
Ceolwulf II of Mercia235
Challinor, Carl282
Charlemagne200–2
Charles the Bald82, 200–1, 209
Chernigov burial mound152
Christchurch Place, Dublin118, 119
Christianity
and coin-pendants128, 130–1, 140
coins under floorboards in Scandinavian churches5–6
introduction into Ireland107
material wealth and money in Scandinavia90–2
rise of monetary and spiritual economies94–100
Chronica Slavorum (Helmold of Bosau)183
Chronicum Scotorum, sub anno 910112
Ciechanów hoard25–6, 26
Clann Cholmáin104, 109–12, 113–15, 117
Clondalkin (2) hoard83
Clonmacnoise, bishop of116
Clonmacnoise cathedral113–16, 114
Clonmacnoise monastery104, 109, 113
cloth currency
archaeological approach254–6
background of251–3, 252n1
commodity to legal currency263–5, 264, 266, 267
conclusions272
explanation2, 10–11
identifying ‘legal cloth’256–7, 257n2, 258, 259–60, 259n3, 260
introduction251
legal, and gender relationships269–70
legalities of268–9
origins of as currency in Iceland260–3, 260n4, 261–3, 261nn5–6, 262n7
origins of as currency in Norway253–4
reason for270–2
Cnut the Great45
Codex Aureus245
coinage
Anglo-Saxon4, 73, 75, 20810, 217
Byzantine26, 129–30, 133, 138
and capital wealth284
Carolingian see Carolingian coinage
Christianization and rise of coined money94–9
Danish Kreuzpfennige26
Danish half-bracteates59
die-linked75–6
fingerprinting see silver, coin fingerprinting
French80
Frisian sceatta133
from England126, 242–3
Hammer Cross76
Hiberno-Scandinavian83
introduction3, 4, 9, 11, 32, 90, 96, 106, 128, 140, 283, 292
Islamic8, 125–6, 128, 132, 134–5, 134, 137, 138–9, 156 See also dirhams
Malmer KG78, 207, 212, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220–2
monetization94–6
ninth-century Carolingian124
pre-reform156
Sassanian209, 219, 222
Short Cross80
Triquetra76
Viking Age4 see also silver
coin-pendants
chains127
and Christianity128, 130–1, 140
in context135–40
Essu gold hoard dinar155–6, 155–6, 156n2, 157–8, 158–9, 158n4
(p.299) introduction6, 11, 123–5
as meaningful objects140–1
necklaces127
re-use of125–9, 126, 126n2, 129
transforming coins129–35, 131
coin renewal
periodic82
regal82
Collinstown hoard83
Colmán, abbot113–14
commodity-currencies10–11, 257, 258, 259 see also cloth currency, butter economy
containers
conclusions184–6, 184n7, 185
economic motives180
importance of171, 171n2, 172, 173
introduction169–71, 169n1
preservation of173–8, 175–6
ritual motives178–80
silver investment180–2, 181
small hoards182–4, 182n6 see also hoards
copper9, 106, 148, 150, 154–6, 191–2, 207–8, 210, 242
Cortnitz hoard21
Coupland, Simon134
Cró Inis (crannóg)110
Cross-marked ingot117
Cross of the Scriptures see West Cross, Clonmacnoise
CRUX pennies83
cubo-octahedral weights see polyhedral weights
Cuerdale hoard112, 117–18, 217, 242
Cullen bog hoards229, 229n1
cumdach (shrine)115
cupellation207–8, 211
currency renewal see renovatio monetae
Cushalogurt, Ireland244
dairy production9–10, 279–80
Damsholt, Nana255
Danegeld49
Danish half-bracteates59
Dannenberg, Herman60–1
‘Darraðarljóð’ (poem)271
Dellingshausen, Baron von146
demonetization2, 6, 82–3, 85, 140
Denmark
attitudes towards coins23
dirham found at Børglum128
gold arm-rings from230
half-bracteates of59
increasing production of coin-like ornaments140
mixed silver hoards of32–54
national coin commencement in125
process of Christianization in97
regal coinages in126–7, 127n3
Derrymore hoard83
Deutsches Bergbau-Museum213
Diarmait mac Máel na mBó86
die-linked coins75–6
dirham fragmentation
chronological patterns19–21, 20
conclusions28–9
description3–4
geographical patterns21–4, 21, 21n8, 23n12
and origin/age of coins24–8, 25–6
pierced/looped53
reasons for27–8, 27
weight of fragmented dirhams16–19, 17nn4–6, 18, 18n7
dirhams
Abbasid see Abbasid dirhams
Arabic57, 155; see also Islamic dirhams
Buyid17
Iranian219
Islamic124, 138, 139, 209; see also Arabic dirhams
Kufic see Kufic dirhams
Saffarid219
Samanid see Samanid dirhams
Umayyad127, 156, 156n3
display economy1, 6, 9, 239, 243
Divine Economy94
Dolley, M.73, 75, 79, 80, 82, 85
Dorestad, Netherlands196, 211
Dublin, Ireland74–6, 80–3, 85–7, 110–11, 118
Duczko, W.161
Dún na Scíath (ringfort)110
Durandus, William99
‘DYMN’79
Dysart (ecclesiastical site)110–11
Dzierznica hoard21
Eastbourne, Sussex243
Écnechán Mac Dálaig, king108–9
‘economy of salvation’90
Edict of Pîtres82
Edward the Confessor76
Edward the Elder217
Egil Skallagrimsson91, 91n3
Einar Tamberskjelve92
electroprobe microanalysis (EPMA)213
ell/öln/ölnir (unit of currency)254, 271–2
England
coins from126, 242–3
coins with Scandinavian-style loops128–9
fashion for coin-like brooches127
and penny of Æthelred II128
products exported to Norway281
Scandinavian bullion economy in246
ships bound from Norway to278
Viking Age hoards from244 see also British Isles; Great Britain
Eniosova, N.231
Epstein, S. A.283
Eric, Jarl61
Erikstorp hoard231
Erra-Liiva hoard159
Essu, Estonia6
(p.300) Essu gold hoard
conclusions163–4
discovery and contents146, 146–8, 148
a female assemblage163–4, 164n5
geometric decoration pendant152–5, 153
introduction145–6
manufacturers and origin of160–3
SEM-EDS analysis148–50, 149, 151–2, 152
Estonia21, 23, 127
Estonian History Museum146
Ethelred II48–9, 53
Eucharist, the99
European Soil Database174–5
European Soil Portal, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission174
Fanad/Inishowen peninsulas109
Farm Mound, Quoygrew, Orkney285–7, 290
Farwan mint17
Fatimid dynasty159
Female assemblages163, 164, 164n5
Fiala, Eduard61–2
filigree145, 14850, 152–4, 161–3
Findan23–4
fine wet sieving4
Finland97, 123, 127
Fishergate, York241
Fish Midden, Quoygrew285–7
Flann mac Lonáin108
Flann Sinna, king109–10, 113–15
Fölhagen hoard161
foreign currency80–1
Fourknocks hoard83
Fransham, Norfolk236
French, C.174
French coinage80
Frisian sceatta coins133
Füsing, Schleswig220
galena (PbS)192
Galster, G.35–6
Gásir, Iceland263
Gdañsk hoard176–7
Gelsinger, B.253, 257
gender6, 11, 164, 269–70
General Assembly, Gotland180
Germany29, 49, 126, 162, 242, 281
gift-exchange5, 105, 199
gift-giving106, 228
gjaldavoð (cloth currency suitable for legal payments)268 see also cloth currency
Gnëzdovo hoard152, 154–5, 159–60, 162–3, 229
Gokstad burial mound92
gold
Arabic dinars6, 148
bracteates164
Byzantine231
Carolingian jewellery160
coins of Charles the Bald200
content of dirhams209–10
and cupellation process207–8
currency2, 9, 138–9, 145, 156, 158–9, 164, 167, 193, 197–200
Essu hoard6, 146–65
female jewellery6–7, 11, 163 see also Female assemblages, necklaces
as a form of money9, 233
Islamic coins156, 159
in Scandinavian England
background228–33, 230
complete ornaments239–41, 239n4, 240–1
discussion244–7, 245n10
hack-gold233–6, 233–5, 236n3, 243–6
ingots237–9, 237–8
introduction227–8
monetary use233
test marks241–4, 242n6, 244nn8–9
and social relationships5
Goodrington, Devon243
Gosden, Chris130
Gotland, Sweden7, 19–21, 23, 32, 50–1, 97–8, 132–3
hoards on7, 162, 171, 173, 176, 178–86
Grágás (law code)252, 254, 267–8, 271–2
Graham-Campbell, James228, 242
granulation145, 148, 150, 152–3, 163
Great Britain16, 29, 53, 76, 78–80, 82, 85–7
Grierson, P.82, 169
Group ‘O’ period83
Guðjónsson, Else255
Gulathing law98, 254, 272
Gullbekk, Svein Harald82, 252
Gustin, I.39
Guta Lag (Law of Gotlanders)178, 180
Gyldensgård hoard40–1, 41–2, 50–2
hack-gold233–6, 233–5, 236n3, 243–6
hack-silver3–4, 6, 8, 11
coinage80
as currency39
cut-up jewellery33–4
deposits from central Europe19
dirham imitations215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220–2
in excavated hoards66–7
and hack-gold232
hoards57, 138, 164
introduction of3–4, 6, 8, 11
most striking Viking Age finds of15
study of from Hedeby217 see also silver
Hæstad hoard230
Hahn, Wolfgang61
Håkon Erikson, Jarl92
Håkon Magnusson281
Hallebrøndshøj passage grave46
Hallinge, Gotland161
(p.301) Halton Moor hoard239
Hammer Cross coinage76
hammering58, 191, 237
Hansen, A.48
Harald Hardråde75–6, 81–2, 92, 94–5, 98
Hårdh, Birgitta32, 34, 228
Hare Island hoards116–17, 116, 118, 228
Harland, J. F.291
Harun al-Rashid, caliph45
Harz mountains211
Havdhem vicarage hoard177
Hebrides hoard232, 232n2
Hedeby, Schleswig8, 126, 130, 135, 208, 212, 215–16, 220, 222, 229
Heimskringla (Snorri Sturluson)91–2, 183
Helmer, D.285
Helmold of Bosau183
Henry II59
Heslip, R.78
Heynesbók (manuscript of Jónsbók law code)269
Hiberno-Norse coinage see Hiberno-Scandinavian coinage
Hiberno-Scandinavian coinage4–5, 75–6, 77, 78–80, 78–9, 78n4, 82–3, 84, 86
Hiberno-Scandinavian mint79
Hiberno-Scandinavians108, 112, 115, 118
Hiddensee hoard230
hoards
Åbo40, 44–5, 46–7, 50, 52
‘active’51
Anastasijevka156–7
Auzeville200
Ballacamaish244
Bezliudovka22
Castle Street (2)83
Ciechanów25–6, 26
Clondalkin (2)83
and coin-pendants125
Cortnitz21
Cuerdale112, 117–18, 217
Cullen bog229, 229n1
Derrymore83
Dzierznica21
‘emergency’169
Erikstorp231
Erra-Liiva159
Fölhagen161
Fourknocks83
Gdañsk176–7
Gnëzdovo152, 154–5, 159–60, 162–3, 229
on Gotland7, 162, 171, 173, 176, 178–86
Gyldensgård40–1, 41–2, 50–2
Hæstad230
Halton Moor239
Havdhem vicarage177
Hebrides232, 232n2
Hiddensee230
Hoen124, 132, 138, 158, 160–1, 163, 230, 245
introduction2–4
Kannikegærdet50
Kannikegård49
Kehra159
Kelc22
Killinure116
Klinten Syd233
Klukowicze24
Knockmaon80, 83
Mannegårde132, 134, 134
Máramaros22
Masuria68
Mózgowo4, 59–62, 60, 62n2, 63–4, 64–5, 66, 67–9
Newry118
Nordre (Ndr.) Stensebygård40, 46–7, 48, 52
Nørremølle33, 40, 42–4, 44–5, 50–2, 53
Nygårds22
Ocksarve (I)19
Olhamra178
Øster Mose154
Parivere159
Paunküla159
Porto Torres159
Ramløse232
ritual deposits170
San Lorenzo church156
‘savings’169
Scattery Island116
Silverdale117
silver from England244
Skaill284–5
Skovsholm36, 38–9
Sorte Muld36–40, 232–3
Spillings19, 24, 112, 182
Stora Tollby (II)19
Stora Vikers (I)22
Stora Klintegårda27, 27
Susa18, 18n7
Tjengvide, Gotland25
Tyskegård40, 40n3, 48–9, 53
Valbo128
Vålse130
Vanneberga232, 233
Vårby123, 124, 139, 161
Vester Vedsted230, 231
Viken24, 24n13
Warmia68
Watlington235
Werburgh Street83 see also containers
Hoen hoard124, 132, 138, 158, 160–1, 163, 230, 245
Hoffman, M.253, 259, 268
Hofstaðir, Iceland265, 267
Holy Dove depiction130
Honorius Augustodunensis99
Hungary22, 44
Ibn Fadlan23
Ibrahim ibn Yaqub59
(p.302) Iceland2, 10–11, 251–65, 264, 266, 267–72, 280
Icelandic commodity-money system251–2
Iceland National Museum256
iconography82, 85, 95, 125, 130, 132
Ilisch, L.209–10
inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)213, 215
inhumation burials135
Inis Aingin116
Inishowen peninsula109
Iranian dirhams219
Iranian silver222
Irish church5–6
Irish Sea region74
Isfahan mint210
Islamic coins8, 125–6, 128, 132, 134–5, 134, 137, 138–9, 156, 209
Islamic gold coins156, 159
Islamic gold mancus156
Isle of Man74
Íslendingabók254
Ismáil ibn Ahmad, emir159
James, St.98
Janów Pomorski175
Jansen, Lieutenant46
Jónsbók271–2
Kannikegærdet hoard50
Kannikegård hoard49
Kaupang, Norway1, 4, 135
Kehnel, A.116
Kehra hoard159
Kelč hoard22
Kelleher, Richard135
Kells, Co. Meath114
Kemmers, Fleur33, 123, 135
Ketilstaðir, Iceland267
Khorasan211
Kiev, Ukraine23
Killinure hoard116
kingdom of Mide110
kinšar/kirat (European denier)59
Klinten Syd hoard233
Klukowicze hoard24
Knockmaon hoard80, 83
Knowth/Cnóbha118
Kołobrzeg, Poland57
Konrad II42, 45
Kreuzpfennige coins26
Kufic dirhams
in the Åbo hoard46
in Bulgar222
in the Gyldensgård hoard41
in the Hoen hoard132
in the Nørremølle hoard43, 46, 123, 132
as pendants123
plentiful finds of206
replaced Sassanian coinage209
on Viking Age Bornholm34, 36 See too Islamic dirhams
Kursk, Russia22–3
kýrlag (cow)10, 283
Lake Mälaren135
Lamb of God depiction130
laser ablation8, 190, 197, 207, 213, 215, 220
laupa (basket)10, 283
lead
argentiferous207
isotope analysis, hack-silver from Hedeby217
isotopes8, 193–5, 198, 201, 207–8, 219
and the KG7222
KG7 and Volga-Bulgar imitations222
ores192–3
and Viking silver210–13, 222
legal cloth currency10 see also cloth currency
L‘Héritier, M.207
Life of Malachy (St Bernard)108
Lilla Valla hoard232
Lincoln, England76
Long Cross imitations83
long-distance trade9, 15, 28, 189–203
longphort, Co. Woodstown106
longphort, Linn Ross106
longphuirt (ship-camps)105–7, 111, 113, 116
loom weights41, 43, 52
Lough Ennell, Co. Westmeath110–11, 115
Lough Ree115
Louis the Pious234–5
Low Countries281
Lynn (ecclesiastical site)111
Malmer, Brita133
McCormick, F.285
MacCotter, Paul105
McKerrel, H. R.208–9
Madinat al-Salam mint16 See alsoBaghdad
Máel Sechnaill, king109–10, 113–14
Magdeburgisches Münzkabinett des neuen Zeitalters (Mülverstedt)62
Making Christian Landscapes project (UCC)107
Malmer KG7 coinage8, 207, 212, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220–2
Mannegårde hoard132, 134, 134
Máramaros hoard22
Marshall, Yvonne130
mass spectrometry8, 191, 204, 213, 217, 222
Masuria hoard68
Mazovia23, 26, 58, 67
Meðalheimur, Iceland265
Melle, France8, 22, 189, 195–202, 211
mercury gilding244
Merovingian kingdom196–9
metal detectors65–7, 67n3
metallurgy203, 205–7, 209–10
Metcalf, D. M.82, 209
micel here (Great Army)234, 236
Millennium Library site, Norwich237
millstones37
(p.303) mints
al-Basra50
al-Muhammadiya16, 219
Balkh210
Bukhara17, 50, 210
Hiberno-Scandinavian79
Isfahan210
Madinat al-Salam16, 17n4
Samarra16, 18
mixing lines (lead isotope analysis)194
Möðruvellir, Iceland263
Moesgaard, J. C.49
monetization20, 90, 94–6
Morkinskinna saga92
Mózgowo hoard4, 59–62, 60, 62n2, 63–4, 64–5, 66, 67–9
al-Muhammadiya mint219
Muirchertach Ua Briain, king86
Mulville, J.289
multi-metal currency9, 246
al-Mustáini, caliph155
Muzeum Warmii i Mazur62
Myrberg, Nanouschka33, 123, 135
neck-rings34, 229, 242, 244
necklaces7, 123, 127, 139, 163–4
neutron activation analysis (NAA)213
Newfoundland280
Newry hoard118
nicking58, 239–43
Nishapur, Iran210
Njál’s saga271
non-silver currencies8–12
Nordre (Ndr.) Stensebygård hoard40, 46–7, 48, 52
Nørremølle hoard33, 40, 42–4, 44–5, 50–2, 53
Northover, P.78, 209
Norway
butter as a staple export good278, 280–1, 283–4, 291
and cloth currency251–4, 271–2
coin-pendants found in123
commodity system in252
compared to Viking Age Ireland87
coverage of16
establishment of an archbishopric in 1152/397
gold arm-rings from230
and Harald Hardråde81–2
and Iceland’s legal system254
introduction5, 11
Land Law (1274)92
money offerings in98–9
national coin commencement in125
pre-Christian Norse91–2
role of money in 11th-century94
spirituality/materiality in post Viking Age96
trade in stockfish281
and Triquetra coinage76
use of cloth as currency in253
whetstone from37
Norwell, Nottinghamshire238, 238
Novgorod22
ns-LA-ICP-QMS213
nuclear methods191
Nygårds hoard22
Ocksarve (I) hoard19
O’Connor, T.284–5
Oka River22
Olaf Kyrre82, 95
Olaf, St.98
Olga of Kiev27
Olhamra hoard178
Orkney, Scotland10–11, 279, 279, 281–4, 291
Orkneyinga saga271, 283
Oseberg burial mound92
Östergren, M.51
Øster Mose hoard154, 232
Øster Vandet coin (2008)127
otoliths40
Otto-Adelheid pennies43, 211
Otto III, Emperor59
Ottoman jewellery161
ouncelands283
oxidation208
Ó Carragáin, T.113–14
Panjhir210–11
Parivere hoard159
particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)213
Paszkiewicz, Borys61
Paunküla hoard159
pecking58
Pedersen, Unn230
Pelle, Frank45
penannular brooches112
pendants6, 11, 34, 123–40, 145–6, 148, 150, 152–5, 160–4 See also coin-pendants
pennylands283
Pepys, Samuel171
perishable foodstuffs10
Permian spiral rings212, 212, 217, 219
Piast state, Greater Poland21–3
pigs285
Pippin II of Aquitaine200–1
plasma mass spectrometry207
Pocklington, Yorkshire236
Poitou196
Poland15, 15n2, 17, 21–4, 32, 57–9, 65, 68
polyhedral weights39, 246
Pomerania7, 57–8, 171, 173–6, 178, 180–4, 182n6
portable XRF (pXRF)213, 215, 220
Porto Torres hoard159
post-substantivist approach2–3
pre-reform coins (dinars)156
Prose Edda (Snorri Sturluson)228
Pyrenees156
Quatrefoil types85
Quentovic196
Quoygrew, Orkney10, 279, 279, 282–92, 286–90
(p.304) Rackwick town, Orkney282
Ramløse hoard232
Randpfennig see Saxon pennies
ransom payments245, 245n10
Rationale divinorum officiorum (Durandus)99
renovatio monetae80, 82–3, 82nn5–6, 85–7
Reykholt, Iceland265
reykmaelir (‘maelir’) of malt282
Rhenish Massif222
‘ring-money’284
Rispling, Gert16, 16n3
Rjurikovo Gorodishe, Russia162
Róbertsdóttir, Hrefna255
Romania44
Romney Marsh243
Royal Collection of Coins and Medals (Copenhagen)48–9
Rus’15–17, 19, 22, 24, 28, 152, 160–3, 231
Rus’ graves128
Russia24, 159, 212, 218, 222
Saddleworth, Yorkshire241, 243
Saffarid dirham219
St. Olav183
Samanid dinars159
Samanid dirhams
in the Åbo hoard45
and Anglo-Saxon coinages208
bismuth content of210
in the Buddegård hoard50
and coin pendants134
in the Gyldensgård hoard41
introduction7–8
isotope ratios of211–12
and Kufic dirham hoards36
and silver analysis220, 222
and silver fragmentation16, 18, 24
Samanid dynasty17, 23, 25
Samarkand, Uzbekistan210
Sanda, Sweden242
San Lorenzo church hoard156
San Tomà church, Venice159
Sassanian coinage209, 219, 222
Scandinavia
and butter economy285
and cloth currency264, 269–70
coins in the Viking Age123–41
gold currency in use in245
growing power of church in95
and high value foreign coins96, 159, 162
introduction6–9
and mixed silver hoards32, 34, 52–4
money offerings in98–9
networks supplying silver to206
pecking silver in late 10th Century242, 242n6
plant motifs on brooches160
production of coinage in189–203
rarity of coins 11th century in97
scholarly works on textiles255
and silver fragmentation15, 17–19, 23–4, 28–9, 58
and silver in Ireland105–8, 110, 113, 115–16
silver ingots in bullion economy237
and spiritual economies90, 92
and Viking Age gold neck-rings229–30
and Viking Age Ireland74
and Viking jewellers161–3
Scania39, 43, 150
scanning electron microscopy145, 148, 213, 215
Scattery Island hoard116
Scél Choirpri Chruim agus Móelsechlaind meic Móelrúanaid109–11
Schleswig208
Scotland280, 284–5, 292
scrap silver32, 34, 41, 43, 48–9, 52
Screen, Elina123–4
scrín Ciaráin115–16
Sease, C.174
Second Dutch War (1667)171
Serbia44
Shash-Ilak region210
sheep282, 285, 287
ship camps (longphuirt)74, 105–7, 111, 113, 116
Short Cross coins80
Shotton Hall, County Durham239, 240, 243
‘Sihtric Cununc’79
Sihtric Silkenbeard86
silver
Arabic coins155
and ‘bleikt silfir’ currency253
circulation in Scotland284
and cloth currency252–4, 268
in coinage95
coin fingerprinting
Carolingian coins from Toulouse199–202, 200–2
combined archaeometric approach194–5
conclusions202–3
elemental composition analysis191–3
general analysis rules190–1
introduction189–90
lead isotope analysis193–4
Merovingian coins from Tours196–9, 197–9, 197n1
provenancing: Melle case195–6, 198–202 see also coinage
compared with gold during Viking Age227–9
conclusions53–4
decline in local availability of10–11
and dirham comparisons22–3
and Egil’s saga91
fineness78–9
fragmentation
discussion67–9
introduction15
metrology of European coins65–7
Mózgowo hoard see Mózgowo hoard
in Poland57–9
sources of Islamic24
huge wave of Central Asian24–5
increase in minting activity97
(p.305) ingots in the Scandinavian bullion economy237
introduction1
Islamic coins23, 29, 126, 128, 132, 138
Iranian222
in Ireland74–5
limitations of focusing on2
local/regional patterns of handling4
and long-distance trade in slaves/furs28
mixed hoards
central part of settlement40–4
compositions/archaeological settings50–3, 51
compositions/contexts33–5
introduction32–3
non-archaeological indicator areas48–50
outskirts of settlement44–8
six life histories40, 40nn2–3
trade, and settlement structure on Bornholm36–40, 37–8
Viking Age on Bornholm35–6
monetary/quasi-monetary functions of2–5
multifaceted uses of6
neck-ring from Sanda, Sweden242
scrap52
small weight unit search58–9, 58
sources of7–8, 23, 24, 29, 193, 195, 201, 207, 209, 233, 252
thistle brooches115
as unit of account9
Viking Age hoards from England244
Silverdale hoard117
silver mines190, 195, 211
silversmithing4, 52
silver surface enrichment192
sin94
Sindbæk, S.170
‘Sitric Rex’79
Skaill hoard284–5
Skovsholm hoard36, 38–9
Skre, Dagfinn2, 252–3, 255, 270
skreid (dried fish)267
Slavic jewellery43, 43n6, 52–3
smávoð (cloth currency)268 see also cloth currency
Snorri Sturluson91, 91n2, 228
‘social skin’270
Söderberg, Anders133
Södermanland, Sweden123
solidi, Byzantine156, 159
Søndre Bø grave, Norway134
Sorte Muld hoard36–40, 232–3
South Cross, Clonmacnoise113
Southern Uí Néill110, 111, 113–15
‘spann’ of butter282
spherical (oblate spheroid) weights39
Spillings hoard19, 24, 112, 182
spiritual economies
conclusions100
introduction90–1
money offerings96–100
Norse religion, wealth and materiality91–2
rise of monetary and spiritual economies94–6
Springthorpe, Lincolnshire236
standardization257, 257n2, 259
Steppe people161
Steuer, Heiko39, 217
Stevenson, B. K.208–9
stika268
Stora Tollby II hoard19
Stora Vikers I hoard22
Stora Klintegårda hoard27, 27
Sundveda, Uppland19
Susa hoard18, 18n7
Svarfdæla saga179
Svedjemo, G.179
Sven Estridsen, king48, 129, 215
Sverre Sigurdsson, King280–1
Sweden
‘Aska lady’ burial154–5
coin finds in97
gold arm-rings from230
and Leksand churchyard penny131
national coin commencement in125
ornaments with plant decoration161
and silver fragmentation20–3, 28
Terslev and Hiddensee styles162
Torsta find161
Talvio, Tuuka123
Tartu University148
Taurus Mountains219
tertia Deo/‘third to God’109
‘themed deposits’7, 16
Theophilus the Presbyter208
thistle brooches115
Thomas, St.98
Thorstein the Tumultuous179
Timërevo, Russia152
Tjengvide, Gotland hoard25
Tonyowen find83
Torksey, Lincolnshire234–5, 234–5, 238, 244–6
total available water content (TAWC)174
Toulouse, France8, 199–202
Touraine, France196
Tours, France196, 198
Transoxania210–11
Treadwell, Luke16
tree decoration pendants148–50, 149, 152, 154, 161–3
trefoil brooches50, 53, 160
Trenabie farm282
Trewhiddle style220
Triquetra coinage76
trofa unit69, 69n 4
Trøndelag, Norway282
Truso, Poland3, 27, 57
Turner, Terence270
twenty-ell unit268
twill cloth10, 252, 257, 259–61, 263, 265, 267, 272
2/2 twill263, 265, 267, 272
Tyrrellspass hoard117–18
Tyskegård hoard40, 40n3, 48–9, 53
(p.306) Ua Briain dynasty86
Ukraine22–3
Ukrainian Galicia22
Úlfjótur (Norwegian settler)254
Ulster Cycle108
Umayyad dirhams127, 156, 156n3
Umayyad dynasty17, 43
unstruck flans132
Uppåkra, Sweden232
Upplandic graves132, 132n4
Urbańczyk, P.67–8
vaðmál see cloth currency
Valbo hoard128
Vale of York hoard239–40
Valhalla91–2
Vålse hoard130
value6, 10, 22, 130, 133, 228, 252, 272
economic value126
face-value127n3,; 140, 255
nominal value80, 133
ornamental value134
reckoning value of commodity currencies
symbolic value96, 126, 243
value of silver22
value of gold to silver228
Vanneberga hoard232, 233
Vårby hoard123, 124, 139, 161
Venice, Itlay196
Vester Vedsted hoard230, 231
Vigne, J.285
Viken hoard24, 24n13
Viking Age
Arabic silver coins155
case study215, 216, 217, 218–21, 219–22
and cloth currency256, 260–4, 267, 269–71
coinage administration80–3, 81, 85–6
coinage production79–80
coin-based economy established in England243
coin finds in churches96
coins from Scandinavia123–41
conclusions86–7, 222–3
deposition of hoards169–71, 177–8, 180, 183, 185–6
distinctive neonatal slaughter signature291–2
elemental compositions208–10
grave robberies91–2
high silver content of242
introduction73–4, 206–7
Ireland background74–5
Viking Age silver
lead isotope analysis210–11
methods of analysis213–15, 214
mining, minting, recycling211–12
Norwegian transactions253
order of the world in94
Orkney284
silver hoards from England244
historical/literary sources108–12, 111
introduction of104–7
silver in Ireland
the Church107–8
Clann Cholmáin and the Church113–15
conclusions118–19
cross-marked Ingot117–18, 118
Hare Island/Inis Aingin115–17
stone churches97–8
striking coinage75
Swedish jewellery161–4
technology of coin mounts159
understanding the alloy207–8
weight of coinage75–6
Viking Great Army9, 234, 236, 254
Vladimir burial mound152
Volga-Bulgar dirham imitations212, 217, 219
Volga-Bulgar strap fittings217, 219
Volga Bulgaria133, 207, 211–12, 222
von Mülverstedt, Johan61–2
vöruvaðmál see cloth currency
vöruvoðsee cloth currency
Warmia hoard68
Watlington hoard235
weight standards75, 79, 230
weight-adjustment239
Wendover Dean, Buckinghamshire246
Werburgh Street hoard83
West Cross, Clonmacnoise113
West Dereham, Norfolk246
West Frankish kingdom134
Westray, Orkney282
West Saxon coinage75
West Wratting, Cambridgeshire236–7
whetstones37
White Lake, Upper Volga4
William I76
William II131
Williams, Gareth133
Wolin, Poland23
wool basket271
X-ray fluorescence (XRF)191, 213, 217, 238
‘Ylavia’ society65
Ynglinga saga91
York, England73, 75
Zachrisson, T.179
Zealand, Denmark43
zinc197, 207–9, 215
zooarchaeological evidence278, 284, 292
Þingvöllr church, Iceland268
Þórláksson, H.253, 259, 268
þragðarvoð (cloth currency)268
z/s yarns262–3, 267, 272