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An Equal BurdenThe Men of the Royal Army Medical Corps in the First World War$

Jessica Meyer

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198824169

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198824169.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 18 November 2019

(p.213) Index

(p.213) Index

An Equal Burden
Oxford University Press

Note: Figures are indicated by an italic ‘f’ following the page number.

137th Field Ambulance106
abdominal wounds103
Advisory Board for the Army Medical Services and the QAIMNS46–48, 73–74
age14–15, 43, 60, 64–66, 84, 159, 167, 188
aid posts87, 134
Alatini, Rose
Despised and Rejected142n78
Alexandria92–93, 116–117
American Civil War44
American Field Service Ambulance Unit (AFSU)120–121, 183–184
American Hospital, Paris183–184
Ammons, Charles101–102, 109, 141
Apothecaries Act 181532–33
Army Council68–69, 172
Army Enlistment Act 187031
Army Hospital Corps (AHC)39–42
Medical Branch39
Purveyor’s Branch39
Army Medical Corps12
Army Medical Department23–24, 40–42
Army Medical School40
Army Medical Services (AMS)1–2, 22, 24–25, 45–46, 49, 60–61, 125–126
reforming the44
Army Medical Staff41–42
Army Nursing Service37–38, 41–43
Army Service Corps12
Assistant Director of Medical Services (ADMS) (Sanitation)72
Atkins, W. H.104–105, 182–183
‘R.A.M.C., The’182–183
auxiliary hospitals57n16, 149
Balkan conflicts (1876–8)35–36
Base hospital units66, 68, 92–94, 116, 130–131, 143–144
patients and nursing staff on a hutted ward of a97f
Battle of Arras154–155
Battle of the Somme68–69, 98–101, 109–110, 140–141, 144, 175–176
Beatson, Sir George138–139
How the Wounded are Cared for in War138–139
Beaumont Hamel102
Beggs, S. T.78
Guide to Promotion for Non-Commissioned Officers and Men of the Royal Army Medical Corps78, 80–81
Bennett, J. B.62–64, 77–78, 105–106, 108, 159, 175
Bennison, Private F.178–179
Bentham, Walter61–62, 106–110, 139
Berkeley, Comyns149
Bonney, Victor149
Borden, Mary103–104
Boulogne68–69, 92–93
Bowlby, Sir Anthony144
Brackenbury, Colonel Henry25, 34–35
Bray, Walter121
British Medical Association7–8
British Medical Journal (BMJ)124, 137–138, 141, 144–145
British Red Cross Society (BRCS). see also Central British Red Cross Committee (CBRCC); Joint Committee of the British Red Cross and Order of St John of Jerusalem; Red Cross
ambulance convoys139–140
ambulance trains142–143
auxiliary hospitals57n16, 149
forerunner to22
foundation of24
medical transportation93, 120–121
military reform50–52
and RAMC68–70
training36, 75
training and status188
(p.214) uniform171–172
women58–59, 66
Brittain, Vera192–193
Brown, W.141
Burdett-Coutts, William, MP45
Cambridge, Duke of31
Cambridge Hospital, Aldershot46–47
Camel Corps141
Capell, Richard100, 175, 191–192
Cardwell Reforms31, 39–40, 49
Carrel-Dakin method130, 148, 150
Casualty Clearing Stations (CCSs)111, 143
evacuation89, 92–94, 109–110
female anaesthetists68
professional nurses66
and QAIMNS57
and RAMC68–69, 88, 143
and shock133, 136–137
wound dressing130–131
Catchpool, Corder71–72, 120–121
Central Medical War Committee (CMWC)55–57
chaplains64n51, 114, 116, 179–180
Charles, Richard130
Chase, H. L.101, 177–178
Chelsea Arts Club153–154, 157
Chenery, Thomas22–23
Church of England63–64
‘citizen soldier’30–31, 171
Clearing Hospitals49–50
CMWC (Central Medical War Committee)55–57
‘combing out’65
Commission of Enquiry into the Regulations Affecting the Sanitary Conditions of the Army (1858)23–24
Committee of Reference55–56
compound fracture of tibia74f
comrades in service169
conscientious objectors70–71, 154n13
‘Could They Do Without Him?’162f
credentialist practices27–28
Crimean War
disdain for male caregivers1–2
first field dressing127
insufficiency of medical care22
medico-military reform38
military reform28–29
orderlies60n30, 132, 156, 193
women as caregivers10, 42–43, 45
cultural representations112n106, 152–185
Dalhousie, Lord40
Dardanelles campaign121
de la Bere, Stephen Baghot157–159, 161, 164, 169
diaries and memoirs192–193
disease, epidemic levels of45
Distinguished Conduct Medal178–179
Doré, E. G.157–159, 169
‘Admirable Hammond, The’157–159
dressing stations105, 114
Advanced Dressing Station (ADS)98–99, 109–110
Main Dressing Stations (MDS)109–110, 136–137
Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry Special Reserve132
Dunn, J. C.94–96
Dupuy, Georges M.78
Stretcher Bearer: A Companion to the R.A.M.C. Training Book, Illustrating the Stretcher-Bearer Drill and the Handling and Carrying of the Wounded, The78
East Leeds Military Hospital63–64
educational reforms30
Egypt106–108, 178
Egyptian campaigns (1882 and 1884)35–36
Empson, Herbert100
Endell Street Hospital, London143–144
enlistment and the manpower crisis59
epidemic levels of disease45
evacuation44, 47, 81–83, 86–123, 138–139, 189–190
1914–18, development of94f, 124–151
along the line of communication89
diagram of90f
evacuation zones89–92
Evans, R. C.141
Evans, Sir George De Lacy30
(p.215) ‘female professional project’33
‘Femina Felina (Var. T.F.N.S.)’164
Fermor, Norman106
Field Ambulance Corps (Territorials)53
Field Ambulances (FAs)
and clearing stations44–45
and nurses114
orderlies105–106, 111–112, 122, 146
Other Ranks92–93
sanitary units107–108
stretcher bearers98–101, 104–105, 131–132, 172n63
5th Canadian Field Ambulance115
51st (Highland) Division136–137, 178–179
first aid126–127
training53–54, 128–130
First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY)142–143
First Aid to the Injured73–74
1st Eastern General Hospital, Cambridge75–76, 87
first field dressings127–136
1st Southern General Hospital, Birmingham65–67, 149–150
1st/2nd Highland Field Ambulance102
1st/3rd Lowland Field Ambulance87n6
Fothergill, W. D.141, 178
Foucault, Michel86–87
Francis, A. E.182
Franco-Prussian War (1870)34–35, 44
French Invasion Scare (1859)29–31
Friends Ambulance Unit (FAU)69–70, 120–121, 142–143, 188
Furley, John34–36, 50–51, 129
Furse, Katherine26
Gallipoli63n47, 78, 102, 109, 175–178
Gask, George103–104
Gazette of the 3rd London General Hospital117–119, 157–159, 161–170, 184–185
gender order86–87
and professional areas27–28
division of labour195–196
professions9–18, 32–33, 37–38
General History of the Medical Services63, 68–69, 89, 171–172
General Hospitals49–50, 155n15
General Officer Commanding (GOC)140–141
general practitioners32
General Service Women66–67
Geneva Conventions60
Germany6–7, 44, 51, 60n33
grave digging115–116
Gray, H. W. M.131–132, 134–136
Early Treatment of War Wounds, The131–132, 134–136
Treatment of Wounded Men in Regimental Aid Posts and Field Ambulances134
Haldane Reforms 1906–128–9, 24–25, 28, 43, 48–50, 153–154
Handy, W. J.145–146
Harrison, Mark3–4, 6–7, 9–10, 190
Herbert, Sidney28–29, 38, 40
heroism1–2, 104–105, 156
Hewitt, Graily193
Home Hospital Reserve51, 60–61, 143–144
home hospitals116, 167
Home Office128
‘Hospital Life’163f
auxiliary57n16, 149
Base hospital units66, 68, 92–94, 116, 130–131, 143–144
Base hospital units of a97f
Clearing Hospitals49–50
criticism of45
General Hospitals49–50
home hospitals116, 167
journals157–169, 180
Hulbert, Sergeant Major Frank178–179
Hundred Days campaign (1918)109–110
‘Hymn to the Fallen of the RAMC’1–2
improvisation129, 141, 150
Indian Mutiny (1857)29
industrialization of warfare4–5, 80–81, 89, 140–141
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)22–23, 34–35
(p.216) Japan51
‘Join the R.A.M.C.’187
Joint Committee of the British Red Cross and Order of St John of Jerusalem68–70, 171–172. see also British Red Cross Society (BRCS); Central British Red Cross Committee (CBRCC); Order of St John; Red Cross
Kennedy, Geoffrey Studdert (‘Woodbine Willie’)105n67, 182
‘To Stretcher Bearers’180
Keogh, Sir Alfred50–51
khaki uniform169–173. see also uniform
King George Hospital, Waterloo87
Kipling, Rudyard31
Kitchener, Lord55, 128, 144, 153–154
‘Knight of the Red Cross’155, 179
knights of the Red Cross152
Knutsford, Lord50–51
Labour Corps12
Lamb, William101–102, 107
la Motte, Ellen103–104
Lansdowne, Lord41–42
‘Last Orderly, The’165–167
Le Havre92–93
Lee, Colonel Arthur144
List of Changes in War Material127
Localization Act (1872)31
London Ambulance Corps (LAC)116–117, 154–155
‘Bluebottles’116–117, 170–171
Longmore, Thomas34–35
Loyd, Archie36
Loyd-Lindsay, Robert22–23, 34–36
Macpherson, Sir William37–38
manpower crisis59
masculinity4, 11–18, 105, 110–111, 123, 183–185
mass mobilization11–12, 129, 153–154
matrons40, 46–48
McCabe, F. F.79
McKerrow, Charles94–96
McMaster, David Randle53–54, 67–68, 76–78, 105–106, 153–155, 173–174
mechanical skills121
Médaille militaire175
medical companion98f, 128n17
Medical Officers (MOs)
in the Army55–57
and Field Ambulances137
and first field dressings131–132
medico-military reform23, 40–42
and orderlies109
post-war reputation193n21
and stretcher bearers102, 104–105, 178–179
medical reform32
Medical Registration Act (1858)32
medical services, diagram of91f
Medical Staff Corps23, 39
medico-military reform38
Memorandum on the Treatment of Injuries in War130–132
Middle East92–93
Middlesex Hospital, Clacton-on-Sea149
Midwinter, C.101–102, 177–178
military awards178–179
Military Cross178–179
‘military man of feeling’10
military medical service, unarmed nature of2, 12
military reform28
Military Service Acts 191655–56, 63, 65, 69–70, 164, 168
Military Service Tribunals55–56, 70
Mills, Arthur132
Mont-Saint Eloi140–141, 154–155
moribund ward114–115
Motor Ambulance Convoy (MAC)61, 79–80, 142–143
Motor Ambulance Corps139
Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance in Peace and War, A184–185
Mounted Brigade Field Ambulances49–50
Muir, Ward
‘combing out’65
comrades in service169–171
cultural imagery169
Happy Hospital, The117–118, 157
khaki uniform15–16
and masculinity154–155
non-combatants152–154, 174–175
Observations of an Orderly117–119, 157
orderlies117–119, 159
and professional identity173–174
‘slackers in khaki’190
(p.217) National Aid Society (NAS)22–23, 34–35, 37, 50
National Health Service (NHS)195
Native Labour Corps72–73
Navy46–47, 152
Navy and Army Male Nursing Co-operation (NAMNC)119
New Army60
Nightingale, Florence9–10, 22–23, 28–29, 37–38, 42–43, 156
Nineteenth Century, The35–36
No. 1 Motor Ambulance Convoy139–140
No. 2 Northern General Hospital, Leeds67–68, 93n19, 191n12
No. 8 Field Ambulance106–107
No. 9 Field Ambulance107–108
No. 30 Casualty Clearing Station113f
Non-Combatant Corps (NCC)70
non-combatants53, 151
non-commissioned officers (NCOs)83–84, 97–98, 107–108, 116–117, 136–137
Casualty Clearing Stations (CCSs)143
changing roles126–127
female42–43, 52, 112–114, 156, 193
power relations with orderlies160–167
and gender9–11, 32–33
Herbert and28–29
and professional identity47
reforms22, 37–38
studies of8–9
nursing orderlies182–183
Ogston, Professor Sir Alexander45–46
Orcutt, Philip Dana183–184
gender identity164–169
and heroism156
and nurses146
power relations with trained nurses120n131, 160–167
recuperating patients employed as164n39
as stretcher bearers105–106
as witnesses to the horrors of war179
‘Orderlies of the Royal Army Medical Corps as Attendants on the Sick and Wounded’46–47
‘orderlim’157–159, 161
Other Ranks92–93, 100–101, 173
‘Our Celebrities, No. 4: The Youngest Lance-Corporal’158f
Palestine106–107, 141
personal narratives192–193
Pirie, A.165–167
‘pleasure culture of war’153n9
Plowman, Max179
politicization of patients5
prisoners of war24–25
‘profession of arms’30–31
professional ethics32
‘professional man’153–154
‘professional project’27
professional qualifications32
professionalism26–27, 45–47, 131
propaganda186–188, 190
purchase of commissions, abolition of30
Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service (QAIMNS)26n22, 37–38, 43, 46–48, 57, 73–74
Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service Reserve (QAIMNS(R))57, 57n19
Reader, W. J.26–27, 32
of doctors and nurses26n22, 55, 56n11, 159n28
of Medical Officers (MOs)7–8
of RAMC ranks53–85, 189
‘Red Cross Army’35–36
Red Cross Committee50–51
‘Red Cross Knight, The’180, 181f, 182
‘Red Cross patriotism’24
Regimental Aid Post (RAP)94
and bandsmen60
and blankets134–136
and evacuation93–94, 189–190
and first field dressings131–132
and stretcher bearers90–93
and Thomas splints133
regimental hospital system39–40
regimental reforms 187341
Regimental Medical Officers (RMOs)60–61, 90–99. see also stretcher bearers
Report of the Commission on Medical Establishments in France (1917)57
reservists, mobilization of61–62
Rorie, David102, 136–137, 145–146, 178–179
‘Royal Army Medical Corps and its Works, The’124
Royal Army Service Corps (RASC)61, 79–80, 120–121, 141–143, 146–147
Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons55–56
Royal Commission (1857)40
Royal Commission on South African Hospitals (1901)45–46
Royal Commission on the War in South Africa 190345
Royal Garrison Artillery139
Royal Review, Phoenix Park, Dublin (1900)25
Royal Warrant39–41, 43
Russell, William Howard22–23, 28–29, 45
sanitary companies72–73, 107–108
Sayers, Dorothy L.193
Murder Must Advertise193
Scottish Medical Service Emergency Committee (SMSEC)55–56
Scottish Women’s Hospitals57–58, 68n72, 143–144
Scout Training53, 173–174
Scutari Hospital45
Second Anglo-Boer War24–25, 43–44, 89, 127–128, 156–157. see also Boer War; South African War
2nd Australian Casualty Clearing Station at Steenwerke96f
2nd Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers94–96
Second Battle of Ypres109–110, 140–141
Service, Robert105n67, 180–182, 193–194
‘Stretcher Bearer, The’180–182
‘shell dressing’128–130
Sidi Bishr109
Sinai Desert178
6th London Field Ambulance82–83, 98–100, 102–103, 106–107, 191–192
‘slackers in khaki’118, 152–185, 190
Sladden, Arthur130
Slythe, Sister Alice160–161
Smith, Dr Andrew40
Soldier’s First Aid: A Simple Treatise on How to Treat a Sick or Wounded Comrade, The79, 81, 133
South Africa127–128
South African War75
‘Southern’ Cross, The65, 157, 161, 164, 167, 172–173, 180, 182–183
St Andrew’s Ambulance Association60–61
St John Ambulance Association. see also Joint Committee of the British Red Cross and Order of St John of Jerusalem; Order of St John
field dressing128–129
in hospitals93
and medical officers37
and RAMC(T)153–154
training36, 50–52, 75
training manual73–74
and voluntary aid34
St John Ambulance Brigade36, 60–61, 188
Staff College30
sterilizer, improvised136f
Stevenson, William183–184
Stewart, Jane Shaw22
stretcher bearers53–85, 99–105
and asepsis131
field dressing132
and heroism183–184
physical labour122, 177–178
as Red Cross Knights180–182
(p.219) and shock133–136
as witnesses to the horrors of war104, 176–177, 179
stretchers95f, 99–100
in trenches137–139, 138f
Swindell, George1–2, 123
and emotional labour103–104, 114–115
enlistment152–153, 159
manpower crisis61–62
and masculinity153–155
physical labour178
‘slackers in khaki’184–185, 190
and stretcher bearer drill80–81
and stretcher bearing98–102
training71–72, 78
as witness to the horrors of war177
Tait, J. C.176
Tatersall, Norman104–105
‘teeth’ units2, 49–50, 63
‘temperate hero’186–188
tent orderlies106–111
10th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers94–96
Territorial Army59–60
Territorial Force Nursing Service (TFNS)26n22, 57, 164
Territorial Force (TF)49–52, 60–61, 65–66, 153–154
County Associations51
Territorial Force (TF) General Hospitals116–117
Thackray’s Pharmaceutical Shop, Leeds128
theatre trailer146–148, 147f
‘Things We May Hope to See—An Ordelette carrying her own milk-can’165f
‘Things We May Hope to See—If the War lasts till Next Christmas’162f
3rd London General Hospital, Wandsworth157
32nd Field Ambulance177–178
Thomas splint133, 136–137, 150
‘Thorax or chest, the’ and ‘Section of male pelvis’74f
Times, The22, 28–29, 45
total war3, 11–12, 85
training46–47, 72, 131–132, 173–174, 189
nursing orderlies47–48
Training Manual72–74, 78–81, 83–84
Training School46–47
transportation83n126, 112, 120, 132
‘trench work’137–138
triangular bandage128–130
2/1st London Field Ambulance106–107, 177–178
United States Army Medical Corps68–69
Upton, John106–108
Victoria Cross (VC)183–184
Vivian, Charles183–184
voluntary aid34
Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD)
Base hospital units66
and BRCS51
creation of24
and dilution116–117, 119, 164
as feminine10, 26, 51–52
first field dressings128–129
first-aid training75
hospital trains142
and male orderlies120n131, 165–167, 169
and masculinity13–14, 156, 168
studies of British women in wartime nursing8–9
as trained nurses146–147
and trained nurses117n121, 160–161
training36, 78n105
volunteer amateurism52
Voluntary Aid Detachment General Service (VAD)(GS)58–59
Vth Corps140–141
Walker, K. M.134
Treatment of Wounded Men in Regimental Aid Posts and Field Ambulances134
‘war books boom’192–193
War Cabinet63
war memorials193
War Office
and AMS24–25
auxiliary hospitals149
and BRCS188
and female doctors57–58
manpower crisis55–57
(p.220) Memorandum on the Treatment of Injuries in War130–131
military reform34–35
Military Service Acts 191656n11, 69–70
and MOs41–42
motor ambulances139–140
and nurse training43
and St John Ambulance Brigade51, l36
and training50
and volunteer medical units69n75
Westminster Abbey193
White, E. C.67
Whyte, Archibald59–62, 62n45, 75–76, 110–111
Wilson, Sir Henry139
Young, Geoffrey Winthrop70n79