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The Oxford Gothic Grammar$
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D. Gary Miller

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198813590

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198813590.001.0001

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The verbal system

The verbal system

Chapter:
(p.176) Chapter 5 The verbal system
Source:
The Oxford Gothic Grammar
Author(s):

D. Gary Miller

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198813590.003.0005

Verbs in Gothic are thematic, athematic, or preterite present. Several classes, including modals, are discussed. Strong verbs have seven classes, weak verbs four. Inflectional categories are first, second, and third person, singular, dual (except in the third person), and plural number. Tenses are nonpast and past/preterite. There are two inflected moods, indicative and optative, and two voices (active, passive). The passive is synthetic in the nonpast indicative and optative. The past system features two periphrastic passives, one stative-eventive with wisan (be), the other inchoative and change of state with wairþan (become). Middle functions are mostly represented by simple reflexive structures and -nan verbs. Nonfinite categories include one voice-underspecified infinitive, a nonpast and past participle, and a present active imperative. The third person imperative is normally expressed by an optative.

Keywords:   strong verb, weak verb, synthetic passive, periphrastic passive, participle, imperative, preterite present, indicative, optative, dual

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