This chapter explores questions about assimilation and integration of Catholics in a universal Church through the lens of expatriates’ devotional lives. Their English identity was not a merely abstract idea but was, like all early modern belonging, constituted through bonds and reciprocal relations. The formative role of charity in fostering and maintaining communal bonds explains some of the driving motivations behind expatriate English Catholics’ preserving their own English community distinct from that of their hosts. They needed to perpetuate the commemoration of their ancestors to ensure their salvation, and intended to return England to the Catholic fold for the salvation of their compatriots. Yet this chapter also questions the assumption that migrants belonged either to their home society or their host society, and that there is a linear way to map their steady integration into the new host culture. Identification with and participation in one community did not preclude membership of other communities.
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