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PertussisEpidemiology, Immunology, and Evolution$
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Pejman Rohani and Samuel Scarpino

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198811879

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198811879.001.0001

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The human immune responses to pertussis and pertussis vaccines

The human immune responses to pertussis and pertussis vaccines

Chapter:
(p.112) Chapter 7 The human immune responses to pertussis and pertussis vaccines
Source:
Pertussis
Author(s):

Françoise Mascart

Violette Dirix

Camille Locht

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198811879.003.0007

Two types of pertussis vaccines are currently available: the first-generation, whole-cell (wP) and more recent, acellular (aP) vaccines. The aP vaccine has replaced the wP vaccine in most industrialized countries, based on an improved safety profile and comparable efficacy of the former compared to the latter. As both vaccines, as well as prior infection, protect well against whooping cough disease, albeit by different mechanisms, the human immune responses to natural infection and vaccination have been extensively studied over the last decades. Shortly after the discovery of the causative agent Bordetella pertussis, both agglutinating antibodies and complement-binding antibodies have been identified in the serum of convalescent patients. However, how much they contribute to protection against disease or infection is still not known. Nevertheless, passive transfer of convalescent serum can significantly attenuate the disease and placental transfer of maternal antibodies induced by vaccination during pregnancy has recently been shown to provide strong protection against severe disease in the offspring. Natural infection and wP vaccination have both been shown to induce a strong Th-1-oriented T-cell response, whereas administration of aP vaccine shifts the response to a Th-2 profile, which may be a reason for the fast waning of immunity upon aP vaccination, compared to wP vaccination and natural infection. None of the current vaccines induce sterilizing immunity and limit circulation of B. pertussis. Therefore, new vaccines are needed that protect both against disease and infection. One such candidate, live attenuated BPZE1, designed to prevent B. pertussis infection, is currently in clinical development.

Keywords:   whole-cell vaccine, acellular vaccine, pertussis-specific B-cell responses, pertussis-specific T-cell responses, novel pertussis vaccines, live attenuated BPZE1

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