Different conceptions of peace have different implications for devising strategies of peacebuilding and peace maintenance. What it takes to achieve a negative peace is very different from what is required to achieve a positive peace. This chapter explores how the conceptual distinctions discussed in the Introduction map onto actual practice, with reference to the principal relevant peacebuilding actors: the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the African Union, the World Bank, and leading non-governmental organizations. What are the primary features of these organizations’ approaches to peacebuilding? How do they differ, if at all, in their understandings of the characteristics of, and requirements for, a stable peace?
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