The deepened financial integration of EDEs has heightened their susceptibility to global financial shocks and increased the instability in their credit, assets, and currency markets. It has led to significant loss of autonomy over monetary policy and the entire spectrum of interest rates. At the same time, these countries are said to have become more resilient because they have adopted more flexible exchange rate regimes, accumulated large stocks of international reserves, and reduced their exposure to the exchange rate risk by shifting from foreign currency to local currency debt. This chapter critically examines these contentions and concludes that none of these practices provides adequate protection against external financial shocks, taking into account the new vulnerabilities entailed by the increased depth and changed pattern of integration, particularly greater presence of foreigners in domestic financial markets and of the nationals of emerging economies in markets abroad.
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