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Grammaticalization from a Typological Perspective$
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Heiko Narrog and Bernd Heine

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198795841

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198795841.001.0001

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Shaping typology through grammaticalization: North America

Shaping typology through grammaticalization: North America

Chapter:
(p.309) 15 Shaping typology through grammaticalization: North America
Source:
Grammaticalization from a Typological Perspective
Author(s):

Marianne Mithun

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198795841.003.0015

North America shows great genealogical diversity, yet many of the languages share a fundamental typological characteristic: elaborate morphology. Certain kinds of elaboration show areal distributions, suggesting contact effects. Many bound morphemes show the kinds of meanings expected of grammatical affixes, such as the Wintu perfective suffix -suk. But others show surprisingly concrete meanings, like the Kutenai suffix ‑quwaʔt ‘fur’. A well-known effect of grammaticalization is the loss of concrete lexical content, with abstraction and generalization over time. But other factors can come into play as well. One is the sequencing of grammaticalization processes, whether semantic/pragmatic changes precede univerbation or follow. Another is the moment at which contact enters in. Here pathways of development exemplifying these variables are traced, with first grammaticalization via auxiliation in Northern California, and second grammaticalization via compounding in the Northwest and elsewhere. Both can be seen to have spread in contact-induced grammaticalization.

Keywords:   grammaticalization, compounding, contact, cycles, lexical affixes, location/direction, means/manner, negation, North America, polysynthesis, usage patterns

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