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Eternal DawnTurkey in the Age of Atatürk$
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Ryan Gingeras

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780198791218

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198791218.001.0001

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Defiance and Submission

Defiance and Submission

(p.287) 5 Defiance and Submission
Eternal Dawn

Ryan Gingeras

Oxford University Press

The Turkish Republic was founded upon the conceit that it represented the unanimity and loyalty of all who lived within its borders. Yet from the earliest stages of the National Struggle, Mustafa Kemal and his followers regularly betrayed a strong distrust for citizens otherwise upheld as faithful and true. Internal reports and private meetings conducted through the course of Atatürk’s rule make clear the degree officials tried, and often failed, to coerce Kurds, religious conservatives, and others into conforming as Turks. To better shape and govern the Anatolian east, republican officials employed a host of measures meant to re-engineer the region’s native inhabitants into responsive, deferential citizens. Failing that, Atatürk’s government stood prepared, and a times were eager, to impose their will through violence. By the time of Atatürk’s death, even those who were most defiant had begun to adapt to the rhetoric and the abrasiveness of the republic.

Keywords:   Kurds, Kurdish nationalism, Islamism, Sufism, Circassians

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