# The physics of black holes II

# The physics of black holes II

This chapter gives a brief description of Hawking radiation, which involves a combination of general relativity and quantum field theory and leads to a thermodynamical interpretation of the laws governing the evolution of black holes. The study of the Penrose process near a Kerr black hole leads to the conclusion that its irreducible mass can only increase. A similar but more general conclusion was reached by Hawking, who showed that the sum of the areas of the horizons of black holes interacting with matter can only increase, with the condition that the cosmic censorship hypothesis is valid and that the matter obeys the so-called weak energy condition. The chapter concludes with the Israel theorem, which allows one to argue that if gravitation is described by general relativity, then not only do black holes exist, but all black holes are represented by the Kerr–Schwarzschild solution.

*Keywords:*
Hawking radiation, black holes, evolution of black holes, S. W. Hawking, Israel theorem, Kerr–Schwarzschild solution, gravitation, general relativity, thermodynamics

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