This chapter discusses the construction of models of the universe, which is ambiguous in Newtonian theory. It presents some results recovered within the framework of general relativity, which in addition makes it possible to lay the foundation of the theory of the formation of large-scale structures in the universe such as galaxies and galactic clusters. The chapter first constructs models of an expanding sphere. If galaxies are treated as the particles of a uniform cloud which is spherically symmetric about the origin of an inertial frame, then these models describe a universe which expands and eventually collapses on itself. The chapter then turns to the pitfalls of the infinite Newtonian universe, the ‘Friedmann’ equation, the evolution of perturbations, and Olbers’s paradox.
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