The energy resolution, i.e. the precision with which the energy of a showering particle can be measured, is one of the most important characteristics of a calorimeter. This resolution is determined by fluctuations in the absorption and signal formation processes. In this chapter, the different types of fluctuations that may play a role are examined, and their relative practical importance is addressed. Sources of fluctuations include fluctuations in the number of signal quanta, sampling fluctuations, fluctuations in shower leakage, as well as a variety of instrumental effects. Since the energy dependence of the different types of fluctuations is not the same, different types of fluctuations may dominate the energy resolution at low and and at high energies. An important type of fluctuations is part of the non-compensation phenomena. It concerns fluctuations in the strength of the electromagnetic component of hadronic showers. The effects of these fluctuations, which typically dominate the energy resolution for hadron and jet detection, are examined in detail. In sampling calorimeters, one particular shower particle may sometimes have catastrophic effects on the calorimeter performance. Several examples of such cases are discussed.
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