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Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists$
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Dennis Sherwood and Paul Dalby

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780198782957

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198782957.001.0001

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Free energy

Free energy

Chapter:
(p.365) 13 Free energy
Source:
Modern Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists
Author(s):

Dennis Sherwood

Paul Dalby

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198782957.003.0013

A critical chapter, explaining how the principles of thermodynamics can be applied to real systems. The central concept is the Gibbs free energy, which is explored in depth, with many examples. Specific topics addressed are: Spontaneous changes in closed systems. Definitions and mathematical properties of Gibbs free energy and Helmholtz free energy. Enthalpy- and entropy-driven reactions. Maximum available work. Coupled reactions, and how to make non-spontaneous changes happen, with examples such as tidying a room, life, and global warming. Standard Gibbs free energies. Mixtures, partial molar quantities and the chemical potential.

Keywords:   spontaneous change, non-spontaneous change, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy-driven reaction, entropy-driven reaction, Helmholtz free energy, maximum available work, coupled systems, friction, global warming, climate change, mixtures, chemical potential

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