The Conclusion discusses the contribution of the book on four issues: the description of the reforms of core democratic rules that occurred in Western Europe from 1990 to 2010; the short- and long-term determinants influencing the occurrence of reform; the dynamics of emergence of bundles of reforms; and finally, the link between the nature of the reform at stake, the process of reform, and the final outcome of a given proposal. Drawing from three case studies, the Conclusion presents a typology of six configurations of reform according to their divisive or consensual character and the type of process (majoritarian, supermajoritarian, and externalized). The findings drawn from the Irish, French, and Italian examples can be applied to a much wider set of reforms and countries, including for instance the outcomes of citizen assemblies or current attempts to modify the constitutional design in several Western European countries.
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