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BonobosUnique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior$
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Brian Hare and Shinya Yamamoto

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198728511

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198728511.001.0001

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Bonobos, chimpanzees and tools: Integrating species-specific psychological biases and socio-ecology

Bonobos, chimpanzees and tools: Integrating species-specific psychological biases and socio-ecology

(p.171) Chapter 12 Bonobos, chimpanzees and tools: Integrating species-specific psychological biases and socio-ecology

Josep Call

Oxford University Press

Over the years there has been some controversy regarding the comparison between chimpanzees and bonobos. Whereas some authors have stressed their differences, others have stressed their similarities. One striking difference between wild chimpanzees and bonobos is tool use, especially in foraging contexts. While several chimpanzee populations possess tool kits formed by multiple tools (and their associated techniques) to exploit embedded resources, bonobos display no such tool specialization. However, studies in the laboratory have shown that bonobos are perfectly capable of using tools. In fact, several studies devoted to investigate the cognitive abilities underlying tool use have failed to detect any substantial differences between the two species. This chapter explores three aspects that could explain the difference between chimpanzees and bonobos in their propensity to use tools in the wild: socio-ecological factors, social versus technical cognition, and personality profiles. Au cours du temps, il y a eu beaucoup de controverse en relation aux comparaisons entres les chimpanzés et les bonobos. Alors que certains auteurs ont stressé les différences entre eux, d’autres ont stressé les similarités. Une grande différence entre les chipmanzés et les bonobos sauvages est l’utilisation des outils, spécialement en butinage. Tandis que plusieurs populations de chimpanzés possèdent des boîtes à outils diverses (et leur techniques respectives) pour exploiter les ressources, les bonobos ne montrent pas une spécialisation pareille. Cependant, les études en laboratoir ont montré que les bonobos sont capables d’utiliser des outils. En faite, plusieurs études des facultés cognitives dans l’utilisation des outils n’ont pas pu détecter de différences substantielles entre les deux espèces. Je vais explorer trois aspects qui pourraient expliquer les différences entre les chimpanzés et les bonobos en ce qui concerne leur tendance naturelle à utiliser les outils: facteurs socio-écologiques, cognition social vs. technique, et profils de personnalité.

Keywords:   tool use, bonobo, chimpanzee, social intelligence, technical intelligence, temperament, emotional reactivity, social attention, psychological bias

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