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BonobosUnique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior$
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Brian Hare and Shinya Yamamoto

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198728511

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198728511.001.0001

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Prosociality among non-kin in bonobos and chimpanzees compared

Prosociality among non-kin in bonobos and chimpanzees compared

(p.140) Chapter 10 Prosociality among non-kin in bonobos and chimpanzees compared

Jingzhi Tan

Brian Hare

Oxford University Press

Models of the origin of human prosociality towards non-kin have been primarily developed from chimpanzee studies. Substantially less effort has been made to consider the prosociality of bonobos. Like chimpanzees, bonobos cooperate with non-kin extensively but, unlike chimpanzees, immigrating members are central to bonobo cooperation. In experiments bonobos are tolerant during encounters with strangers and during co-feeding. They help strangers without immediate tangible reward, and forfeit monopolizable food to facilitate a physical interaction with them. Such prosociality seems proactive as it is not elicited by solicitation. Bonobos also seem to prefer sharing food over non-food objects, while chimpanzees reliably transfer non-food objects rather than food. These findings highlight the possibility that human sharing with strangers might have also evolved as a mutualistic endeavour to initiate a long-term partnership. Future models of human prosociality will need to incorporate findings from both Pan species. Les modèles de l’origine de la prosocialité humaine entre non-parents ont été développées en majorité à partir d’études de chimpanzé. Beaucoup moins d’efforts ont été faits pour considérer la prosocialité des bonobos. Comme les chimpanzés, les bonobos coopèrent extensivement avec non-parents mais, contrairement au chimpanzés, les membres immigrants sont au centre de la coopération bonobo. Les bonobos sont tolérants, en expérimentation, durant les rencontres avec des étrangers et durant la co-alimentation. Ils aident les étrangers sans récompense immédiate, et abandonnent la nourriture monopolisable pour faciliter une interaction physique avec eux. Une prosocialité pareille paraît proactive vu qu’elle n’est pas sollicitée. Les bonobos, il paraît, préfèrent partager la nourriture que d’autres objets, alors que les chimpanzés préfèrent partager les objets non-aliments que la nourriture. Ces résultats soulignent la possibilité que le partage humain avec les étrangers a pu évoluer comme une enquête mutuelle pour initier un partenariat à longue durée. Les modèles futurs de la prosocialité humaine doivent inclure les résultats des deux espèces Pan.

Keywords:   Bonobo, prosocial behaviour, stranger, social tolerance, food sharing, xenophilia

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