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Marine Pollution$
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Christopher L. J. Frid and Bryony A. Caswell

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198726289

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198726289.001.0001

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The state of seven seas

The state of seven seas

Chapter:
(p.176) Chapter 6 The state of seven seas
Source:
Marine Pollution
Author(s):

Christopher L. J. Frid

Bryony A. Caswell

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198726289.003.0006

Seven regions are described in terms of their pollution history, other synergistic human pressures, the current challenges and management approaches. Although the timing and detailed impacts vary, primarily for historical reasons, between regions all show similar patterns of change. Sea regions exposed to centuries of human activity (North Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Chesapeake Bay) are considered, as are those for which pollution is more recent (Canadian LOMAs and Coral Sea), and those expected to experience intense pressure in the near future (Arctic Ocean). Nutrients from agriculture and sewage from growing human populations are ubiquitous and not easily managed in marine systems. Controls on industrial discharges have succeeded in halting, sometimes reversing, degradation in some regions (Black Sea, Mediterranean, North Sea, Chesapeake Bay). However, shipping, coastal development and offshore infrastructure continue to apply pressure. While most regions are subject to international agreements and management regimes the effectiveness varies.

Keywords:   Eutrophication, regime shift, over-fishing, Large Ocean Management Areas, environmental remediation, oil exploration, Great Barrier Reef, historic pollution, trophic cascade, hypoxia

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