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Network PropagandaManipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics$

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190923624

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190923624.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 21 October 2019

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(p.389) Notes

Source:
Network Propaganda
Author(s):

Yochai Benkler

Robert Faris

Hal Roberts

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Chapter 1

(1.) Faiz Siddiqui and Susan Svrluga, “N.C. man told police he went to D.C. pizzeria with gun to investigate conspiracy theory,” Washington Post, December 5, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/local/wp/2016/12/04/d-c-police-respond-to-report-of-a-man-with-a-gun-at-comet-ping-pong-restaurant/?utm_term=.936da2eb2f42.

(2.) Belief in conspiracies largely depends on political identity, https://today.yougov.com/news/2016/12/27/belief-conspiracies-largely-depends-political-iden/.

(3.) Craig Silverman, “This Analysis Shows How Viral Fake Election News Stories Outperformed Real News on Facebook,” BuzzFeed News, November 16, 2016, https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/viral-fake-election-news-outperformed-real-news-on-facebook?utm_term=.vkaAjDkD2#.qfAX8rLrk.

(4.) “Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections,” Intelligence Community Assessment, January 6, 2017, https://www.dni.gov/files/documents/ICA_2017_01.pdf.

(5.) Alex Jones, “Jeb Bush Close Nazi Ties Exposed,” https://www.infowars.com/jeb-bush-close-nazi-ties-exposed/.

(6.) Tyler Durden, “Saudi Arabia has funded 20% of Hillary’s Presidential Campaign, Saudi Crown Prince Claims,” Fox Nation, June 14, 2016, http://nation.foxnews.com/2016/06/14/saudi-arabia-has-funded-20-hillarys-presidential-campaign-saudi-crown-prince-claims.

(7.) Robert Faris et al., “Partisanship, Propaganda, and Disinformation: Online Media and the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election,” at 98, Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society, August 2017 https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/33759251.

(8.) Gallup Knight Foundation Survey, “American Views: Trust, Media and Democracy,” January 16, 2018, https://kf-site-production.s3.amazonaws.com/ (p.390) publications/pdfs/000/000/242/original/KnightFoundation_AmericansViews_Client_Report_010917_Final_Updated.pdf.

(9.) Nick Newman et al., “Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2017,” n.d.; Amy Mitchell et al., “Publics Globally Want Unbiased News Coverage but Are Divided on Whether Their News Media Deliver” (Pew Research Center, January 11, 2018).

(10.) Robert H. Weibe, The Search for Order 1877–1920 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1967), 111–132.

(11.) David Mindich, Just the Facts: How “Objectivity” Came to Define American Journalism (New York: New York University Press, 2000).

(12.) James C. Scott, Seeing like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed, Nachdr., Yale Agrarian Studies (New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 2008).

(13.) Claire Wardle and Hossein Derakhshan, “Information Disorder: Toward and Interdisciplinary Framework for Research and Policy Making,” Council of Europe Report, September 27, 2017; Caroline Jack, “Lexicon of Lies: Terms for Problematic Information” (Data & Society, August 9, 2017).

(14.) Joshua Tucker et al., “Social Media Political Polarization and Political Disinformation: A Review of the Scientific Literature” (Hewlett Foundation, March 2018), https://www.hewlett.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Social-Media-Political-Polarization-and-Political-Disinformation-Literature-Review.pdf; Nathaniel Persily, “Can Democracy Survive the Internet?,” Journal of Democracy 28, no. 2 (2017): 63–76, https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2017.0019; Gabriel Emile Hine et al., “Kek, Cucks, and God Emperor Trump: A Measurement Study of 4chan’s Politically Incorrect Forum and Its Effects on the Web,” ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1610.03452, 2016.

(15.) Samuel C. Woolley and Douglas R. Guilbeault, “Computational Propaganda in the United States of America: Manufacturing Consensus Online,” n.d., http://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/89/2017/06/Comprop-USA.pdf; Denis Stukal et al., “Detecting Bots on Russian Political Twitter,” Big Data 5, no. 4 (December 1, 2017): 310–324, https://doi.org/10.1089/big.2017.0038; Alice Marwick and Rebecca Lewis, “Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online” (New York: Data & Society Research Institute, 2017); Jacob Davey and Julia Ebner, “The Fringe Insurgency” (Institute for Strategic Dialogue, October 2017); David M.J. Lazer et al., “The Science of Fake News,” Science 359, no. 6380 (March 9, 2018): 1094–1096, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao2998.

(16.) Emilio Ferrara, “Disinformation and Social Bot Operations in the Run up to the 2017 French Presidential Election,” First Monday 22, no. 8 (July 31, 2017), https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v22i8.8005; Alessandro Bessi and Emilio Ferrara, “Social Bots Distort the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election Online Discussion,” First Monday 21, no. 11 (November 3, 2016), http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/7090; Woolley and Guilbeault, “Computational Propaganda in the United States of America”; Stefano Cresci et al., “The Paradigm-Shift of Social (p.391) Spambots: Evidence, Theories, and Tools for the Arms Race,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion (International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, 2017), 963–972, http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3055135; Chengcheng Shao et al., “The Spread of Fake News by Social Bots,” ArXiv:1707.07592 [Physics], July 24, 2017, http://arxiv.org/abs/1707.07592.

(17.) Craig Silverman, This Analysis Shows How Viral Fake Election News Stories Outperformed Real News on Facebook, BuzzFeed News, November 16, 2016, https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/viral-fake-election-news-outperformed-real-news-on-facebook?utm_term=.vkaAjDkD2#.qfAX8rLrk.

(18.) Craig Silverman and Lawrence Alexander, “How Teens In The Balkans Are Duping Trump Supporters With Fake News,” BuzzFeed, November 3, 2016, https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/how-macedonia-became-a-global-hub-for-pro-trump-misinfo?utm_term=.ak8V5PlP4#.fiEA7mqmO.

(19.) Scott Shane, “From Headline to Photograph, a Fake News Masterpiece,” New York Times, January 18, 2017, sec. U.S., https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/18/us/fake-news-hillary-clinton-cameron-harris.html; “The Bizarre Truth Behind the Biggest Pro-Trump Facebook Hoaxes | Inc.Com,” accessed January 27, 2018, https://www.inc.com/tess-townsend/ending-fed-trump-facebook.html.

(20.) Ellen Nakashima, “Russian Government Hackers Penetrated DNC, Stole Opposition Research on Trump,” Washington Post, June 14, 2016, sec. National Security, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/russian-government-hackers-penetrated-dnc-stole-opposition-research-on-trump/2016/06/14/cf006cb4-316e-11e6-8ff7-7b6c1998b7a0_story.html.

(22.) Frank Pasquale, The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015).

(23.) Zeynep Tufekci, “Engineering the Public: Big Data, Surveillance and Computational Politics,” First Monday 19, no. 7 (July 2, 2014), http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/4901.

(24.) Daniel Kreiss and Shannon C. Mcgregor, “Technology Firms Shape Political Communication: The Work of Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter, and Google With Campaigns During the 2016 U.S. Presidential Cycle,” Political Communication, October 26, 2017, 1–23, https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2017.1364814.

(25.) Alexis C. Madrigal, “When the Nerds Go Marching In,” The Atlantic, November 16, 2012, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/11/when-the-nerds-go-marching-in/265325/.

(27.) Marwick and Lewis; Davey and Ebner, “The Fringe Insurgency”; Hine et al., “Kek, Cucks, and God Emperor Trump.”

(28.) Whitney Phillips, Jessica Beyer, and Gabriella Coleman, “Trolling Scholars Debunk the Idea That the Alt-Right’s Shitposters Have Magic Powers,” Motherboard, (p.392) March 22, 2017, https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/z4k549/trolling-scholars-debunk-the-idea-that-the-alt-rights-trolls-have-magic-powers.

(29.) Amy Mitchell et al., “Political Polarization & Media Habits,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), October 21, 2014, http://www.journalism.org/2014/10/21/political-polarization-media-habits/.

(30.) Jeffrey Gottfried, Michael Barthel, and Amy Mitchell, “Trump, Clinton Voters Divided in Their Main Source for Election News,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), January 18, 2017, http://www.journalism.org/2017/01/18/trump-clinton-voters-divided-in-their-main-source-for-election-news/.

(31.) Thomas E. Patterson, “News Coverage of the 2016 General Election: How the Press Failed the Voters,” 2016. Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics, and Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School, December 7, 2016. https://shorensteincenter.org/news-coverage-2016-general-election/.

(32.) Duncan J. Watts and David M. Rothschild, “Don’t Blame the Election on Fake News. Blame It on the Media.,” Columbia Journalism Review, December 5, 2017, https://www.cjr.org/analysis/fake-news-media-election-trump.php.

(33.) Gallup Inc., “ ‘Email’ Dominates What Americans Have Heard About Clinton,” Gallup.com, accessed January 30, 2018, http://news.gallup.com/poll/195596/email-dominates-americans-heard-clinton.aspx.

(34.) Matthew Gertz, “I’ve Studied the Trump-Fox Feedback Loop for Months. It’s Crazier Than You Think.,” Politico Magazine, accessed April 5, 2018, http://politi.co/2Av9v0f; “Trump Tweets and the TV News Stories behind Them,” CNNMoney, accessed April 5, 2018, http://money.cnn.com/interactive/media/trump-tv-tweets/index.html; Brian Feldman, “Here Are the Cable-News Segments That President Trump Is Cribbing Tweets From,” Select All, accessed April 5, 2018, http://nymag.com/selectall/2017/02/trump-tweets-inspired-by-fox-an-exhaustive-list.html.

(35.) Jacob Pramuk, “House Speaker Paul Ryan talks up the spending bill on ‘Fox & Friends’ for an audience of one—President Donald Trump,” CNBC, https://www.cnbc.com/2018/03/22/paul-ryan-talks-up-the-spending-bill-for-an-audience-of-one-on-fox-friends.html.

(36.) Alvin Chang, “We analyzed 17 months of Fox & Friends transcripts. It’s far weirder than state-run media,” Vox, https://www.vox.com/2017/8/7/16083122/breakfast-club-fox-and-friends.

(37.) Wardle and Derakhshan, “Information Disorder: Toward and Interdisciplinary Framework for Research and Policy Making”; Jack, “Lexicon of Lies: Terms for Problematic Information.”

(38.) Harold Laswell, Propaganda Technique in the World War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf 1927); Harold D Lasswell et al., Propaganda and Promotional Activities, an Annotated Bibliography (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1935), http://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volumes/oclc/1013666.html.

(39.) Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion, 1st Free Press pbks. ed. (New York: Free Press Paperbacks, 1997), 158.

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(40.) Edward Bernays, The Engineering of Consent, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 1947.

(42.) United States Army Field Manual No. 3-05.30, Psychological Operations, April 15, 2005, https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-05-30.pdf.

(43.) Amanda Amos and Margaretha Haglund, “From social taboo to “torch of freedom”: the marketing of cigarettes to women,” Tobacco Control 9(1), http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/9/1/3.

(44.) Jacques Ellul, Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes (New York: Vintage Books, 1973), xviii.

(45.) Jay Black, “Semantics of Propaganda,” Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 16(2&3), 121–137 (2001).

(46.) Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (New York: Pantheon Books, 2002).

(47.) Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006), Chapters 6–7.

(48.) Gareth S. Jowett and Victoria O’Donnell, Propaganda and Persuasion (Sage, 1992).

(49.) Cass R. Sunstein ed., “Fifty Shades of Manipulation,” in The Ethics of Influence: Government in the Age of Behavioral Science, Cambridge Studies in Economics, Choice, and Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 78–115, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316493021.005.

(50.) Anne Barnhill, “What Is Manipulation,” in Manipulation: Theory and Practice, eds. Christian Coons and Michael Weber (Oxford University Press, 2014), https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199338207.001.0001.

(51.) Yochai Benkler , “Networks of Power, Degrees of Freedom,” International Journal of Communication, [S.l.], v. 5, p. 39, April 2011. ISSN 1932-8036. Available at http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/1093/551.

(52.) Harry G. Frankfurt, On Bullshit (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 56.

(54.) D.J. Flynn, Brendan Nyhan, and Jason Reifler, “The Nature and Origins of Misperceptions: Understanding False and Unsupported Beliefs About Politics: Nature and Origins of Misperceptions,” Political Psychology 38 (February 2017): 127–150, https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12394.

(55.) Jennifer L. Hochschild and Katherine Levine Einstein, Do Facts Matter? Information and Misinformation in American Politics (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2015), 14.

(56.) Gary King, Jennifer Pan, and Margaret E. Roberts, “How the Chinese Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction, Not Engaged Argument,” American Political Science Review 111, no. 03 (August 2017): 484–501, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055417000144.

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(58.) Adam J. Berinsky, “Telling the Truth about Believing the Lies? Evidence for the Limited Prevalence of Expressive Survey Responding,” Journal of Politics 80, no. 1 (January 2018): 211–224, https://doi.org/10.1086/694258.

(59.) Brittany Seymour et al., “When Advocacy Obscures Accuracy Online: Digital Pandemics of Public Health Misinformation Through an Antifluoride Case Study,” American Journal of Public Health 105, no. 3 (March 2015): 517–523, https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.302437; Rebekah Getman et al., “Vaccine Hesitancy and Online Information: The Influence of Digital Networks,” Health Education & Behavior, December 21, 2017, 109019811773967, https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198117739673.

Chapter 2

(1.) Amy Mitchell et al., “1. Pathways to News,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), July 7, 2016, http://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/pathways-to-news/; Jeffrey Gottfried and Elisa Shearer, “Americans’ Online News Use Is Closing in on TV News Use,” Pew Research Center (blog), September 7, 2017, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/07/americans-online-news-use-vs-tv-news-use/.

(3.) We used a version of the bot-detection approach developed by the Menczer group in Indiana, as modified by Emilio Ferrara, formerly of that group, to study the French election. Emilio Ferrara, “Disinformation and Social Bot Operations in the Run up to the 2017 French Presidential Election,” First Monday 22, no. 8 (July 31, 2017), http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/8005.

(4.) “Why the Trump Machine Is Built to Last Beyond the Election,” Bloomberg.com, October 27, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-27/inside-the-trump-bunker-with-12-days-to-go.

(5.) Philip E. Converse, “The nature of belief systems in mass publics (1964),” Critical Review 18, no. 1-3 (2006): 1–74; John Zaller, The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion (Cambridge University Press, 1992); Alan I. Abramowitz and Kyle L. Saunders. “Is polarization a myth?,” The Journal of Politics 70, no. 2 (2008): 542–555.

(6.) John Nolte, “Trump-Effect: Fox News Channel’s Brand Takes 50% Hit Among Republicans,” Breitbart, February 27, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/big-journalism/2016/02/27/trump-effect-fox-news-channels-brand-takes-50-hit-among-republicans/.

(7.) Ted Marzilli, “Fox News Hits Three Year Perception Low With Republicans,” BrandIndex, February 24, 2016, http://www.brandindex.com/article/fox-news-hits-more-two-year-perception-low-republicans%E2%80%8B.

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(8.) The table with descriptive statistics of linking practices is available in the online appendix.

(9.) Craig Silverman, “Publishers Are Switching Domain Names To Try To Stay Ahead Of Facebook’s Algorithm Changes,” BuzzFeed, accessed March 28, 2018, https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/publishers-are-switching-domain-names-to-try-and-stay-ahead.

(10.) Amy Mitchell et al., “1. Pathways to News,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), July 7, 2016, http://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/pathways-to-news/.

(11.) Jeffrey Gottfried et al., “The 2016 Presidential Campaign—a News Event That’s Hard to Miss,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), February 4, 2016, http://www.journalism.org/2016/02/04/the-2016-presidential-campaign-a-news-event-thats-hard-to-miss/.

(12.) Hunt Alcott and Matthew Gentzkow, “Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 31, no. 2 (2017): 211–236, 212.

(13.) Jeffrey Gottfried, Michael Barthel, and Amy Mitchell, “Trump, Clinton Voters Divided in Their Main Source for Election News,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), January 18, 2017, http://www.journalism.org/2017/01/18/trump-clinton-voters-divided-in-their-main-source-for-election-news/.

(14.) Elisa Shearer and Jeffrey Gottfried, “News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017” (Pew Research Center, September 7, 2017), http://www.journalism.org/2017/09/07/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2017/.

(15.) Amy Mitchell et al., “The Modern News Consumer—1. Pathways to News” (Pew Research Center, July 7, 2016), http://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/pathways-to-news/.

(17.) Amy Mitchell et al., “1. Pathways to News,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), July 7, 2016, http://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/pathways-to-news/.

(18.) Amy Mitchell et al., “Political Polarization & Media Habits,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), October 21, 2014, http://www.journalism.org/2014/10/21/political-polarization-media-habits/.

Chapter 3

(1.) R. Kelly Garrett, Brian E. Weeks, and Rachel L. Neo, “Driving a wedge between evidence and beliefs: How online ideological news exposure promotes political misperceptions,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 21, no. 5 (2016): 331–348.

(2.) Mark Hemingway, “Once Again, PolitiFact Struggles to Explain Data Showing They Treat GOP Unfairly,” Weekly Standard, May 31, 2013, http://www.weeklystandard.com/once-again-politifact-struggles-to-explain-data-showing-they-treat-gop-unfairly/article/732009.

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(3.) Lucas Graves, “What We Can Learn from the Factcheckers’ Ratings,” Columbia Journalism Review, June 4, 2013, http://www.cjr.org/united_states_project/what_we_can_learn_from_the_factcheckers_ratings.php; Paul Krugman, “Facts Have a Well-Known Liberal Bias,” New York Times, December 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/08/opinion/facts-have-a-well-known-liberal-bias.html.

(4.) Glenn Kessler, “One Year of Fact Checking—an Accounting,” Washington Post, December 30, 2011, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/fact-checker/post/one-year-of-fact-checking--an-accounting/2011/12/27/gIQAR1taOP_blog.html; Chris Mooney, “Reality Bites Republicans,” The Nation, May 16, 2012, https://www.thenation.com/article/reality-bites-republicans/.

(5.) We do not compare CBS or NBC because there are too few stories checked on those networks to provide a reasonable basis of comparison. NBC is qualitatively similar to ABC.

(6.) Lou Colagiovanni, “Trump Allegedly Tied-Up 13 Year-Old Girl He Raped, Struck Her In Face,” Occupy Democrats, October 24, 2016, http://occupydemocrats.com/2016/10/24/trump-allegedly-tied-13-year-old-girl-raped-struck-face/.

(7.) Lisa Bloom, “Why the New Child Rape Case Filed Against Donald Trump Should Not be Ignored,” Huffington Post, June 26, 2016, https://www.huffingtonpost.in/entry/why-the-new-child-rape-ca_b_10619944.

(8.) Here, we use top 10 sites, excluding candidate sites and sites like WikiLeaks and Wikipedia, which were used as sources by others, and candidate sites as measured by most linked-to, most Twitter shared, and most Facebook shared over the course of the entire 18-month period under observation. Because the last two sites of the most linked-to sites on the right were World Net Daily and Gateway Pundit, two particularly pernicious conspiracy sites, we also ran the analysis without these two, and these reduced the number of sentences from 199 to 170, suggesting that these sites overcontributed slightly, but not to a degree that qualitatively effects the difference between the right and every other quintile observed.

(12.) Malia Zimmerman, “Flight Logs Show Bill Clinton Flew on Sex Offender’s Jet Much More than Previously Known,” Fox News, May 13, 2016, http://www.foxnews.com/us/2016/05/13/flight-logs-show-bill-clinton-flew-on-sex-offenders-jet-much-more-than-previously-known.html.

(13.) The RSS feed was captured on Media Cloud. The Facebook title appeared as of early 2018 on http://app.viralnewschart.com/News/News.aspx?linkId=174625641; but the URL was no longer accessible at the closing of this writing.

(14.) Breitbart News, “Report: Bill Clinton Flew on Jeffrey Epstein’s Jet Without Secret Service Detail,” Breitbart, May 13, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/ (p.397) big-government/2016/05/13/report-bill-clinton-flew-jeffrey-epsteins-jet-without-secret-service-detail/.

(15.) Geoff Earle and David Martosko, “Bill Clinton Jumped Aboard Disgraced Sex Offender Jeffrey Epstein’s ‘Lolita Express’ Plane for Junkets 26 TIMES in Just Three Years,” Daily Mail Online, May 13, 2016, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3589628/Report-Bill-Clinton-jumped-aboard-disgraced-sex-offender-Jeffrey-Epstein-s-Lolita-Express-plane-junkets-26-TIMES-just-three-years.html.

(16.) Derek Hunter, “Bill Clinton Took Twice As Many Flights On ‘Pedophile Island’ Billionaire’s ‘Lolita Express’ Than Previously Reported,” Daily Caller, May 14, 2016, http://dailycaller.com/2016/05/14/bill-clinton-took-more-than-twice-as-many-flights-on-pedophile-island-billionaires-lolita-express-than-previously-reported/.

(17.) Douglas Ernst, “Bill Clinton Ditched Secret Service on Multiple ‘Lolita Express’ Flights: Report,” Washington Times, May 14, 2016, https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/may/14/bill-clinton-ditched-secret-service-on-multiple-lo/.

(18.) Megan Twohey and Michael Barbaro, “Crossing the Line: How Donald Trump Behaved With Women in Private,” New York Times, May 14, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/15/us/politics/donald-trump-women.html.

(19.) “Woman in NYT Trump Piece Disputes Report,” NBC News, May 16, 2016, https://www.msnbc.com/morning-joe/watch/woman-in-nyt-s-trump-piece-disputes-report-686463555992.

(20.) “MSNBC Live: MSNBCW: May 16, 2016 12:00pm–1:01pm PDT” (MSNBC, May 16, 2016), https://archive.org/details/MSNBCW_20160516_190000_MSNBC_Live/start/600/end/660; “MSNBC Live” (MSNBC, May 16, 2016), https://archive.org/details/MSNBCW_20160516_190000_MSNBC_Live/start/660/end/720.

(21.) Sean Hannity, “Carson: Press Has Shirked Its Duty to Be Honest; Exclusive: Former Bergdahl Platoon Mates Endorse Trump,” Fox News, May 16, 2016, http://www.foxnews.com/transcript/2016/05/16/carson-press-has-shirked-its-duty-to-be-honest-exclusive-former-bergdahl.html.

(22.) Steve Guest, “Bill Clinton To Campaign Near Pedophile’s ‘Orgy Island’ [VIDEO],” Daily Caller, May 16, 2016, http://dailycaller.com/2016/05/16/bill-clinton-to-campaign-near-pedophiles-orgy-island-video/.

(23.) Trent Baker, “‘Morning Joe’ Panel: Clinton Connection With Billionaire Pedophile Jeffrey Epstein Will ‘Blow Up’ Campaign,” Breitbart, May 16, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/video/2016/05/16/morning-joe-panel-clinton-connection-with-billionaire-pedophile-jeffrey-epstein-will-blow-up-campaign/.

(24.) “Special Report With Bret Baier: FOXNEWSW: May 17, 2016 3:00pm–4:01pm PDT” (Fox News, May 17, 2016), https://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20160517_220000_Special_Report_With_Bret_Baier/start/2100/end/2160.

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(26.) Steve Guest, “Gingrich: Clinton Is ‘A Target-Rich Environment’ Regarding Relationships With Women [VIDEO],” Daily Caller, May 18, 2016, http://dailycaller.com/2016/05/18/gingrich-clinton-is-a-target-rich-environment-regarding-relationships-with-women-video/.

(28.) Breitbart TV, “Limbaugh Rips CNN’s Gergen, ‘Clinton Cash’ Critics for Calling Book ‘Discredited,’ ” Breitbart, June 23, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/video/2016/06/23/limbaugh-rips-cnns-gergen-clinton-cash-critics-for-calling-book-discredited/.

(29.) Hannah Parry, “Billionaire Sex Offender Jeffrey Epstein Once Claimed He Helped Found Clinton Foundation as He Touted Close Relationship with Former President during Plea Bargain Negotiations,” Daily Mail Online, July 7, 2016, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3679023/Billionaire-sex-offender-Jeffrey-Epstein-claimed-helped-Clinton-Foundation-touted-close-relationship-former-president-plea-bargain-negotiations.html.

(30.) “BREAKING BOMBSHELL: NYPD Blows Whistle on New Hillary Emails: Money Laundering, Sex Crimes with Children, Child Exploitation, Pay to Play, Perjury,” True Pundit, November 2, 2016, https://truepundit.com/breaking-bombshell-nypd-blows-whistle-on-new-hillary-emails-money-laundering-sex-crimes-with-children-child-exploitation-pay-to-play-perjury/. Craig Silverman at BuzzFeed locates the origin of the story three days earlier, in a tweet and blog post, which were transposed into a YourNewsWire story, all of which preceded the True Pundit story. Craig Silverman, “How The Bizarre Conspiracy Theory Behind ‘Pizzagate’ Was Spread,” BuzzFeed, November 4, 2016, https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/fever-swamp-election?bftwnews&utm_term=.esW37XrXv#.oyY5RoPoW. Because the True Pundit story introduced new elements that were those ultimately picked up by Erik Prince, and because its story was tweeted out by Michael Flynn, we treat the True Pundit story as the core source. But we acknowledge that the earlier tweets could have been the source, and if so, given how early and central the True Pundit story was, the basic overarching implication does not change much.

(31.) Sean Adl-Tabatabai, “NYPD: Hillary Clinton ‘Child Sex Scandal’ About To Break,” Your News Wire, November 2, 2016, http://yournewswire.com/nypd-hillary-clinton-child-sex-scandal/.

(32.) Matthew Rosenberg, “Trump Adviser Has Pushed Clinton Conspiracy Theories,” New York Times, December 5, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/05/us/politics/-michael-flynn-trump-fake-news-clinton.html.

(33.) John Hayward, “Erik Prince: NYPD Ready to Make Arrests in Anthony Weiner Case,” Breitbart, November 4, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/radio/2016/11/04/erik-prince-nypd-ready-make-arrests-weiner-case/.

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(34.) “Source: FBI Has Evidence Hillary Visited ‘Orgy Island,’ ” WND, November 4, 2016, http://www.wnd.com/2016/11/source-fbi-has-evidence-hillary-visited-orgy-island/.

Part two

(1.) M.E. McCombs and D.L. Shaw, “The agenda-setting function of mass media,” Public Opinion Quarterly 36 no. 2 (1972): 176–187.

(2.) S. Iyengar, and D.R. Kinder, News That Matters: Television and American Opinion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

(3.) A particularly useful review is Dietram A. Scheufele and David Tewksbury, “Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models,” Journal of Communication 57 (2007): 9–20.

Chapter 4

(1.) Jonathan Capehart, “Opinion | Donald Trump’s ‘Mexican Rapists’ Rhetoric Will Keep the Republican Party out of the White House,” Washington Post, June 17, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-partisan/wp/2015/06/17/trumps-mexican-rapists-will-keep-the-republican-party-out-of-the-white-house/.

(2.) Peter Holley, “‘Radical Islamic Terrorism’: Three Words That Separate Trump from Most of Washington,” Washington Post, March 1, 2017, sec. The Fix, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2017/02/28/radical-islamic-terrorism-three-words-that-separate-trump-from-most-of-washington/.

(3.) TIME, George H. W. Bush And Ronald Reagan Debate On Immigration In 1980| TIME, accessed April 11, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YsmgPp_nlok&feature=youtu.be.

(4.) Bradley Jones, “Americans’ Views of Immigrants Marked by Widening Partisan, Generational Divides,” Pew Research Center (blog), April 15, 2016, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/04/15/americans-views-of-immigrants-marked-by-widening-partisan-generational-divides/.

(5.) Mark Hugo Lopez and Paul Taylor, “Latino Voters in the 2012 Election,” Pew Research Center’s Hispanic Trends Project (blog), November 7, 2012, http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/11/07/latino-voters-in-the-2012-election/.

(6.) Republican National Committee, “Growth and Opportunity Project,” December 2012, http://s3.documentcloud.org/documents/623664/republican-national-committees-growth-and.pdf.

(7.) Leslie Kaufman, “Breitbart News Network Plans Global Expansion,” New York Times, February 16, 2014, sec. Media, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/17/business/media/breitbart-news-network-plans-global-expansion.html.

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(8.) Jane Mayer, “The Reclusive Hedge-Fund Tycoon Behind the Trump Presidency,” New Yorker, March 17, 2017, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/03/27/the-reclusive-hedge-fund-tycoon-behind-the-trump-presidency.

(9.) We include a list of the sites in each part of the training set in the online appendix.

(10.) Joseph Bernstein, “Here’s How Breitbart And Milo Smuggled Nazi and White Nationalist Ideas Into The Mainstream,” BuzzFeed, accessed April 23, 2018, https://www.buzzfeed.com/josephbernstein/heres-how-breitbart-and-milo-smuggled-white-nationalism.

(11.) Chuck Ross, “New Ties Emerge Between Clinton And Mysterious Islamic Cleric,” Daily Caller, July 13, 2016, http://dailycaller.com/2016/07/13/new-ties-emerge-between-clinton-and-mysterious-islamic-cleric/.

(12.) Richard Pollock, “Wikileaks: Here’s A Peek At Clinton’s Free Private Jet Scam | The Daily Caller,” Daily Caller, October 31, 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20161101090958/http://dailycaller.com/2016/10/31/wikileaks-heres-how-the-clintons-free-private-jet-scam-works/.

(13.) Email from Ira Magaziner to John Podesta, 2011-11-22. https://wikileaks.org/podesta-emails/emailid/38048.

(14.) Richard Hofstadter, “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” Harper’s Magazine 229, no. 1374 (1964): 77–86.

(15.) Richard Pollock, “Hillary’s Two Official Favors To Morocco Followed By $28 Million For Clinton Foundation,” Daily Caller, October 31, 2016, http://dailycaller.com/2016/10/31/hillarys-two-official-favors-to-morocco-resulted-in-28-million-for-clinton-foundation/.

(17.) Department of Justice, Environment and Natural Resources Division, Accomplishments Report FY 2010, April 28, 2011. https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/enrd/legacy/2015/04/13/ACCOMPLISHMENT_REPORT_2010_FINAL_5_18_11_Internet-508.pdf.

(19.) Richard Pollock, “Hillary’s Two Official Favors To Morocco Resulted In $28 Million For Clinton Foundation,” Text.Article, Fox News, October 31, 2016, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2016/10/31/hillary-8217-s-two-official-favors-to-morocco-resulted-in-28-million-for-clinton-foundation.html.

(20.) “LEAK—Muslims Paid Hillary $28 MILLION To Do THIS, It’s SICK,” Conservative Fighters (blog), March 14, 2017, http://conservativefighters.com/news/leak-muslims-paid-hillary-28-million-sick/; “LEAK—Muslims Paid Hillary $28 MILLION To Do THIS, It’s SICK,” The Angry Patriot, March 14, 2017, http://www.angrypatriotmovement.com/muslims-paid-hillary-28-million/.

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(21.) Saagar Enjeti, “Here’s A (Dirty) Laundry List Of The Clinton Foundation’s Most Questionable Foreign Donations,” Daily Caller, October 31, 2016, http://dailycaller.com/2016/10/23/heres-a-dirty-laundry-list-of-the-clinton-foundations-most-questionable-foreign-donations/.

(22.) Alex Pfeiffer, “Hillary In Leaked Email: Saudi Arabia And Qatar Are Funding ISIS,” Daily Caller, October 10, 2016, http://dailycaller.com/2016/10/10/hillary-in-leaked-email-saudi-arabia-and-qatar-are-funding-isis/.

(24.) Tyler Durden, “Saudi Arabia Has Funded 20% Of Hillary’s Presidential Campaign, Saudi Crown Prince Claims,” Zero Hedge, June 14, 2016, https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-06-13/saudi-arabia-has-funded-20-hillarys-presidential-campaign-saudi-crown-prince-claims.

(25.) Tyler Durden, “Saudi Arabia Has Funded 20% Of Hillary’s Presidential Campaign, Saudi Crown Prince Claims,” http://nation.foxnews.com/2016/06/14/saudi-arabia-has-funded-20-hillarys-presidential-campaign-saudi-crown-prince-claims. The story was still live when we accessed it for our August 2017 report, but has since been removed from Fox’s site and blocked from the Internet Archive, so there is no live link to that republication.

(26.) Zero Hedge, “Saudi Arabia Has Funded 20% Of Hillary’s Presidential Campaign, Saudi Crown Prince Claims,” Infowars, June 14, 2016, https://www.infowars.com/saudi-arabia-has-funded-20-of-hillarys-presidential-campaign-saudi-crown-prince-claims/.

(27.) “Statement by Jordan News Agency” (Petra, June 14, 2016), http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=257423&CatID=13.

(28.) Rori Donaghy, “Jordan Says Hack Led to Posting of ‘False News’ That Saudi Funds Clinton,” Middle East Eye, June 14, 2016, http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/deleted-official-report-says-saudi-key-funder-hillary-clinton-presidential-campaign-223282807.

(29.) The editor of the site, David Hearst, was previously an editor at the The Guardian, and the site has consistently refused to disclose its donors. Other members of its staff and its sole registered director have been the basis of criticism from a wide array of sites—from Saudi (http://www.ikhwan.whoswho/en/archives/854) and UAE media, to Breitbart (http://www.breitbart.com/london/2014/06/19/the-national-muslim-brotherhood-its-uk-connections-and-media-attacks-on-the-uae/) to the U.K.-based Jewish News, (http://jewishnews.timesofisrael.com/font-of-hatred-how-hamas-relies-on-two-uk-websites/), all claiming one basis or another for tying MEE to Qatar or the Muslim Brotherhood.

(30.) “Hackers Did It? Jordanian Media in Hot Water over ‘Saudi Prince Funding Clinton Campaign’ Report,” RT International, June 14, 2016, https://on.rt.com/7fhe.

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(31.) Patrick Wintour, “Russian Hackers to Blame for Sparking Qatar Crisis, FBI Inquiry Finds,” The Guardian, June 7, 2017, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jun/07/russian-hackers-qatar-crisis-fbi-inquiry-saudi-arabia-uae.

(32.) Karen DeYoung and Ellen Nakashima, “UAE Orchestrated Hacking of Qatari Government Sites, Sparking Regional Upheaval, According to U.S. Intelligence Officials,” Washington Post, July 16, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/uae-hacked-qatari-government-sites-sparking-regional-upheaval-according-to-us-intelligence-officials/2017/07/16/00c46e54-698f-11e7-8eb5-cbccc2e7bfbf_story.html.

Chapter 5

(1.) “Reince Priebus on Flynn, Russia and President Trump’s Agenda; Rush Limbaugh Talks Trump’s Relationship with the News Media | Fox News,” accessed April 22, 2018, http://www.foxnews.com/transcript/2017/02/19/reince-priebus-on-flynn-russia-and-president-trump-agenda-rush-limbaugh-talks.html.

(2.) Glenn Greenwald, “The Deep State Goes to War With President-Elect, Using Unverified Claims, as Democrats Cheer,” The Intercept (blog), January 11, 2017, https://theintercept.com/2017/01/11/the-deep-state-goes-to-war-with-president-elect-using-unverified-claims-as-dems-cheer/.

(3.) Tucker Carlson & Glenn Greenwald Gov’t: Gov’t Agencies vs. Donald Trump Cannel, Channel 11 News Today YouTube channel, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ff9YnnpAF8.

(4.) “Essay: Anatomy of the Deep State,” BillMoyers.com (blog), February 21, 2014, https://billmoyers.com/2014/02/21/anatomy-of-the-deep-state/.

(5.) “Ron Paul: Trump Will Continue to Be Himself,” MovingImage, Fox Business, November 10, 2016, http://video.foxbusiness.com/v/5205472770001/.

(6.) “Trump Should Resist Neocon & Shadow Gov’t Influence to Justify People’s Hopes—Ron Paul to RT—RT US News,” accessed April 22, 2018, https://www.rt.com/usa/366404-trump-ron-paul-crosstalk/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=RSS.

(7.) “Is A Real Civil War Possible? | Zero Hedge,” accessed April 22, 2018, https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-11-12/real-civil-war-possible.

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(8.) Adam Entous, Ellen Nakashima, and Greg Miller, “Secret CIA Assessment Says Russia Was Trying to Help Trump Win White House,” Washington Post, December 9, 2016, sec. National Security, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/obama-orders-review-of-russian-hacking-during-presidential-campaign/2016/12/09/31d6b300-be2a-11e6-94ac-3d324840106c_story.html.

(9.) “Silent Coup in Progress: American Intelligence Agencies Are Trying to Stop Trump From Taking Office,” December 10, 2016, https://russia-insider.com/en/node/18123.

(10.) “Silent Coup in Progress”; Justin Raimondo, “Stop the CIA Coup,” Antiwar.com Original (blog), December 11, 2016, https://original.antiwar.com/justin/2016/12/11/stop-cia-coup/; VNN, “Stop CIA Coup: Deep State versus Donald Trump,” Veterans News Now (blog), accessed April 22, 2018, https://www.veteransnewsnow.com/2016/12/12/1011997-stop-the-cia-coup-the-deep-state-versus-donald-trump/; “Stop the CIA Coup : Information Clearing House—ICH,” accessed April 22, 2018, http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/46019.htm.

(11.) Ben Schreckinger, “How Russia Targets the U.S. Military,” Politico, https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2017/06/12/how-russia-targets-the-us-military-215247.

(12.) Ben Schreckinger, “How Russia Targets the U.S. Military—POLITICO Magazine,” accessed April 22, 2018, https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2017/06/12/how-russia-targets-the-us-military-215247.

(13.) Virgil12 Dec 20164 and 174, “Virgil: The Deep State vs. Donald Trump,” Breitbart, December 12, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2016/12/12/virgil-the-deep-state-vs-donald-trump/.

(14.) “Exclusive: Trump Operative Roger Stone Survives Assassination Attempt,” Infowars (blog), January 17, 2017, https://www.infowars.com/exclusive-trump-operative-roger-stone-survives-assassination-attempt/; “Breaking: Deep State Targeting Journalists for Death,” Infowars (blog), January 18, 2017, https://www.infowars.com/breaking-deep-state-targeting-journalists-for-death/.

(15.) Eli Lake, “The Political Assassination of Michael Flynn,” Bloomberg.com, February 14, 2017, https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2017-02-14/the-political-assassination-of-michael-flynn.

(16.) Saker as Tyler Durden, “‘It’s Over Folks’ The Neocons & The ‘Deep State’ Have Neutered The Trump Presidency | Zero Hedge,” accessed April 22, 2018, https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-02-14/its-over-folks-neocons-deep-state-have-neutered-trump-presidency.

(17.) “Intel Community Trying to Undermine Trump’s Presidency?,” Fox Business, accessed April 22, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7j_ZfKmcnSk&feature=youtu.be.

(18.) Chris Stirewalt, “Trump Knocks down ‘Deep State’ Claims,” Text.Article, Fox News, February 16, 2017, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2017/02/16/trump-knocks-down-deep-state-claims.html.

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(20.) “Lou Dobbs Tonight : FBC : March 8, 2017 7:00pm-8:01pm EST,” March 9, 2017, http://archive.org/details/FBC_20170309_000000_Lou_Dobbs_Tonight.

(21.) Sean Hannity, “Sean Hannity: Trump Must Purge Deep-State Bureaucrats Now,” Text.Article, Fox News, March 10, 2017, http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2017/03/10/sean-hannity-trump-must-purge-deep-state-bureaucrats-now.html.

(22.) “Greenwald: Empowering the ‘Deep State’ to Undermine Trump Is Prescription for Destroying Democracy,” Democracy Now!, accessed April 22, 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jY1MiNfwcRg.

(23.) Sean Adl-Tabatabai, “DNC Election Fraud Whistleblower Found Murdered,” YourNewsWire, July 12, 2016, http://yournewswire.com/dnc-election-fraud-whistleblower-found-murdered/.

(24.) Keegan Hankes and Alex Amend, “Alt-Right Celebrity @Ricky_Vaughn99 Suspended From Twitter,” Southern Poverty Law Center, October 6, 2016, https://www.splcenter.org/hatewatch/2016/10/06/alt-right-celebrity-rickyvaughn99-suspended-twitter.

(25.) “WAS MURDERED 27 YEAR OLD DEMOCRAT Operative About To Blow The Whistle On VOTER FRAUD When He Was Shot In The Back? [VIDEO] * 100PercentFedUp.com,” 100PercentFedUp.com, July 16, 2016, https://100percentfedup.com/was-murdered-27-year-old-democrat-operative-about-to-blow-the-whistle-on-voter-fraud-when-he-was-shot-in-the-back-video/; Team DML, “People Claiming Murder of DNC’s Seth Rich Connects to Clinton,” Dennis Michael Lynch, July 16, 2016, http://dennismichaellynch.com/dc-conspiracy-death2/.

(26.) [deleted], “This Is Seth Conrad Rich, the DNC’s 27 Year Old Data Director, Who Was Murdered. The Fact That They Do Not Want to Talk about Him Is Exactly Why We Should.,” Reddit, July 28, 2016, https://www.reddit.com/r/The_Donald/comments/4v34fk/this_is_seth_conrad_rich_the_dncs_27_year_old/; MyKettleIsNotBlack, “DNC Data Director Seth Rich Was Likely Assassinated by the Clintons,” Reddit, July 27, 2016, https://www.reddit.com/r/The_Donald/comments/4uua1j/dnc_data_director_seth_rich_was_likely/.

(27.) Alex Johnson, “Julian Assange: ‘No Proof’ Hacked DNC Emails Came From Russia,” NBC News, July 25, 2016, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/wikileaks-julian-assange-no-proof-hacked-dnc-emails-came-russia-n616541.

(28.) TruthFeedNews, “VIDEO: DNC Staffer Set to Testify Against Hillary Clinton SHOT TWICE AND NOW DEAD,” Truthfeed, July 30, 2016, http://truthfeed.com/video-dnc-staffer-set-to-testify-against-hillary-clinton-shot-twice-and-now-dead/14115/.

(29.) Archivist2001, “Deaths of Seth Conrad Rich & John Ashe—OAN 7-28-2016” (YouTube, 2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MikSx1-Maro.

(30.) Jim Hoft, “ANOTHER MYSTERIOUS DEATH => Activist and Sanders Supporter Who Served Papers to DNC on Fraud Case Found Dead,” Gateway Pundit, August 4, 2016, http://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2016/08/breaking-lead-attorney-dnc-fraud-case-found-dead-1-week-serving-dnc-papers/.

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(31.) Nieuwsuur, “Julian Assange on Seth Rich” (YouTube, 2016), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kp7FkLBRpKg.

(32.) Michael S. Schmidt, “Comey Memo Says Trump Asked Him to End Flynn Investigation,” New York Times, May 16, 2017, sec. Politics, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/16/us/politics/james-comey-trump-flynn-russia-investigation.html.

(34.) “Fox and Friends First” (Fox News, May 16, 2017), http://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20170516_090000_Fox_and_Friends_First.

(35.) “Fox & Friends” (Fox News, May 16, 2017), http://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20170516_100000_FOX__Friends.

(37.) Malia Zimmerman, “Seth Rich, Slain DNC Staffer, Had Contact with WikiLeaks, Say Multiple Sources,” May 16, 2017, https://web.archive.org/web/20170516114431/http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2017/05/16/slain-dnc-staffer-had-contact-with-wikileaks-investigator-says.html.

(38.) “Hannity” (Fox News, May 17, 2017), http://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20170517_050000_Hannity.

(40.) “Rod Wheeler Backtracks Statements about Seth Rich Investigation,” WTTG, May 17, 2017, http://www.fox5dc.com/news/rod-wheeler-backtracks-statements-about-seth-rich-investigation.

(41.) Steven Levitsky and Daniel Ziblatt, How Democracies Die, First edition (New York: Crown, 2018), 146–75.

(42.) Lauren Carroll, “Baseless Claims That Slain DNC Staffer Was WikiLeaks Source,” PolitiFact, May 23, 2017, http://www.politifact.com/punditfact/statements/2017/may/23/newt-gingrich/claim-slain-dnc-staffer-seth-rich-gave-emails-wiki/.

(43.) Eugene Kiely, “Gingrich Spreads Conspiracy Theory,” FactCheck.org, May 22, 2017, https://www.factcheck.org/2017/05/gingrich-spreads-conspiracy-theory/.

(44.) “Statement on Coverage of Seth Rich Murder Investigation,” Fox News, May 23, 2017, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2017/05/23/statement-on-coverage-seth-rich-murder-investigation.html.

(45.) Scott Taylor, “EXCLUSIVE: A Look Inside ‘Profiling Project: Seth Rich,’ ” WJLA, May 25, 2017, http://wjla.com/features/7-on-your-side/exclusive-a-look-inside-profiling-project-seth-rich-at-gwu.

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(46.) Noah Lanard, “A Republican Lobbyist Went Hunting for Seth Rich’s Murderer. Things Got Bizarre.,” Mother Jones (blog), July 17, 2017, https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2017/07/a-lobbyist-detectives-strange-quest-to-find-seth-richs-murderer/.

(47.) Scott Taylor, “READ: Independent Group Releases New Report on Seth Rich’s Murder Investigation,” WFXL, June 20, 2017, http://wfxl.com/news/nation-world/read-new-report-released-on-seth-richs-murder-investigation.

(48.) RT, “CrossTalk: ‘Seth Rich’ ” (YouTube, 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OT9wFXUAjMk.

(49.) Amended Complaint, Wheeler v. Twenty First Century Fox et al., Civil Action No.: 17-cv-05807 (GBD) (2017), https://www.courtlistener.com/recap/gov.uscourts.nysd.478367.56.0.pdf.

(51.) Reports on Congress working toward protecting Mueller from being fired: Erin Kelly, “Special Counsel Mueller Is Investigating Facebook Ads Linked to Russia,” USA Today, September 21, 2017, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2017/09/21/congress-should-protect-evidence-gathered-mueller-russia-probe-experts-warn/685139001/. On September 21, Mueller asks for phone records from Air Force One surrounding the claim that Trump had dictated the response of Donald Trump Jr. over the June 9 meeting: Josh Dawsey, “Mueller Requested Phone Records about Air Force One Statement,” Politico, September 21, 2017, http://politi.co/2DvhwE3. Salon has a breakdown of the week ending 9/22: “There are a number of threads to the story to pull together. The first is that special counsel Robert Mueller has sent requests to the White House asking for various documents pertaining to Trump’sTrump’s actions as president. These include the firing of James Comey and Michael Flynn, as well as requests for telephone records from Air Force One on the day the president helped draft the false statement about Donald Trump Jr’s June 2016 meeting with a purported representative of the Russian government, in hopes of getting dirt on Hillary Clinton”. “(Heather Digby Parton, “Paul Manafort May Hold the Key: Who Was He Really Working For?,” Salon, September 22, 2017, https://www.salon.com/2017/09/22/paul-manafort-may-hold-the-key-who-was-he-really-working-for/). “After a relatively quiet summer, September has seen a flurry of media reports that suggest special counsel Robert Mueller’s Russian-interference investigation is heating up. Whether it’s the FBI raid on former Trump campaign manager Paul Manafort’s home, Mueller’s demand for White House correspondence concerning Trump’s firing of FBI director James Comey and other controversial actions, or Mueller’s search warrant for Facebook accounts tied to Russian operatives, the investigation appears to be homing in on President Trump and his inner circle”. (Arn Pearson, “Trump v. (p.407) Mueller?,” Huffington Post, September 26, 2017, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/trump-v-mueller_us_59ca4da8e4b0b7022a646dae).

(52.) Rep Jim McGovern and Tiffany Muller, “As Mueller Probes Russian Facebook Ads, Our Elections Are Vulnerable And Congress Does Nothing,” Huffington Post, September 28, 2017, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/as-mueller-probes-russian-facebook-ads-our-elections_us_59cd238fe4b04575111f390d; Dylan Byers, “Facebook: Russian Ads Reached 10 Million People,” CNNMoney, October 3, 2017, http://money.cnn.com/2017/10/02/media/facebook-russian-ads-10-million/index.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+rss.

(53.) Brad Heath, “Exclusive: Jared Kushner’s Personal Email Re-Routed to Trump Organization Computers amid Public Scrutiny,” USA Today, October 3, 2017, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2017/10/03/exclusive-jared-kushners-personal-email-moved-trump-organization-computers-amid-public-scrutiny/728467001/; Josh Dawsey and Rea Peterson, “Hundreds of White House Emails Sent to Third Kushner Family Account,” POLITICO, October 2, 2017, https://www.politico.com/story/2017/10/02/jared-kushner-email-account-white-house-243389).

(54.) Matt Apuzzo and Michael S. Schmidt, “Hoping to Have Trump Cleared, Legal Team Eases Resistance to Inquiry,” New York Times, October 7, 2017, sec. Politics, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/07/us/politics/trump-russia-legal.html; Greg Price, “Will Trump Meet with Mueller to Discuss the Russia Probe?,” Newsweek, October 12, 2017, http://www.newsweek.com/trump-mueller-meeting-russia-683376; Darren Samuelsohn, “President’s Lawyers May Offer Mueller a Meeting with Trump,” Politico, October 12, 2017, http://politi.co/2lZABHH.

(55.) “Hannity” (Fox News, October 24, 2017), http://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20171024_070000_Hannity.

(57.) Breitbart News, “Hillary Clinton’s Brother Defends Haiti Gold Mine Deal: ‘I Raise Money for a Lot of People,’ ” Breitbart, March 20, 2015, http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/03/20/hillary-clintons-brother-defends-gold-mine-deal-i-raise-money-for-a-lot-of-people/.

(58.) Robert O’Harrow Jr., “Trump Adviser Received Salary from Charity While Steering Breitbart News,” Washington Post, November 23, 2016, sec. Investigations, https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/trump-adviser-received-salary-from-charity-while-steering-breitbart-news/2016/11/22/75340778-af8a-11e6-8616-52b15787add0_story.html.

(59.) Carrie Levine, “Reclusive Mega-Donor Fueling Donald Trump’s White House Hopes,” Center for Public Integrity, October 7, 2016, https://www.publicintegrity.org/2016/10/07/20307/reclusive-mega-donor-fueling-donald-trumps-white-house-hopes.

(p.408)

(60.) Jo Becker and Mike McIntire, “Cash Flowed to Clinton Foundation Amid Russian Uranium Deal,” New York Times, April 15, 2015, sec. U.S., https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/24/us/cash-flowed-to-clinton-foundation-as-russians-pressed-for-control-of-uranium-company.html.

(61.) Michelle Ye Hee Lee, “The Facts behind Trump’s Repeated Claim about Hillary Clinton’s Role in the Russian Uranium Deal,” Washington Post, October 26, 2016, sec. Fact Checker, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2016/10/26/the-facts-behind-trumps-repeated-claim-about-hillary-clintons-role-in-the-russian-uranium-deal/.

(62.) Eugene Kiely, “No ‘Veto Power’ for Clinton on Uranium Deal,” FactCheck.org, April 28, 2015, https://www.factcheck.org/2015/04/no-veto-power-for-clinton-on-uranium-deal/.

(63.) Linda Qiu, “Did Clinton Help Russia Obtain Uranium for Donations? Nope,” PolitiFact, June 30, 2016, http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2016/jun/30/donald-trump/donald-trump-inaccurately-suggests-clinton-got-pai/.

(64.) Jo Becker and Mike McIntire, “Cash Flowed to Clinton Foundation Amid Russian Uranium Deal,” New York Times, April 15, 2015, sec. U.S., https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/24/us/cash-flowed-to-clinton-foundation-as-russians-pressed-for-control-of-uranium-company.html.

(65.) Erik Wemple, “John Solomon Leaves Washington Times, Joins Circa Re-Launch,” Washington Post, December 7, 2015, sec. Erik Wemple, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/erik-wemple/wp/2015/12/07/john-solomon-leaves-washington-times-joins-circa-re-launch/.

(66.) “A Russian Nuclear Firm under FBI Investigation Was Allowed to Purchase US Uranium Supply,” Circa, October 17, 2017, https://www.circa.com/story/2017/10/17/national-security/the-fbi-uncovered-russian-nuclear-kickback-scheme-months-before-the-obama-administration-passed-uranium-one-deal-with-moscow.

(67.) Styxhexenhammer666, “FBI Uncovered Russian Bribery Plot In 2009 Before Obama Sold Russia A Bunch of Uranium” (YouTube, 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UwHzIC3Tu1U.

(68.) “The Left’s Imploding Everywhere You Look,” Rush Limbaugh Show, October 17, 2017, https://www.rushlimbaugh.com/daily/2017/10/17/the-lefts-imploding-everywhere-you-look/.

(70.) “Making Money With Charles Payne” (Fox Business, October 17, 2017), http://archive.org/details/FBC_20171017_220000_Making_Money_With_Charles_Payne.

(71.) “Lou Dobbs Tonight” (Fox Business, October 17, 2017), https://archive.org/details/FBC_20171017_230000_Lou_Dobbs_Tonight/start/660/end/720.

(p.409)

(72.) “Hannity: October 19, 2017 9:00pm–10:00pm PDT” (Fox News, October 20, 2017), http://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20171020_040000_Hannity.

(75.) Mike Levine, “McCabe Claims Firing Part of ‘Ongoing Assault’ on Russia Probe,” ABC News, March 16, 2018, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/words-mccabe-claims-firing-part-ongoing-assault-russia/story?id=53807980.

(77.) Nicole Hemmer, Messengers of the Right: Conservative Media and the Transformation of American Politics, Politics and Culture in Modern America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016).

(78.) Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Joseph N. Cappella, Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 146–147.

(79.) “The Four Corners of Deceit: Prominent Liberal Social Psychologist Made It All Up,” Rush Limbaugh Show, April 29, 2013, https://www.rushlimbaugh.com/daily/2013/04/29/the_four_corners_of_deceit_prominent_liberal_social_psychologist_made_it_all_up/.

(80.) Donald J. Trump, “And the FAKE NEWS Winners Are . . . ,” Twitter, January 17, 2018, https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/953794085751574534; Team GOP, “The Highly Anticipated 2017 Fake News Awards,” GOP (blog), January 17, 2018, https://gop.com/the-highly-anticipated-2017-fake-news-awards.

(81.) “Fox & Friends: October 20, 2017, 3:00am–6:00am PDT” (Fox News, October 20, 2017), http://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20171020_100000_FOX__Friends.

(82.) “Hannity: October 24, 2017, 12:00am–1:00am PDT” (Fox News, October 24, 2017), http://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20171024_070000_Hannity.

(83.) Hannity: October 26, 2017, 6:00pm–7:00pm PDT” (Fox News, October 27, 2017), 26, http://archive.org/details/FOXNEWSW_20171027_010000_Hannity.

Chapter 6

(1.) Frank Newport et al., “‘Email’ Dominates What Americans Have Heard About Clinton,” Gallup, September 16, 2016, http://news.gallup.com/poll/195596/email-dominates-americans-heard-clinton.aspx.

(2.) Thomas E. Patterson, “News Coverage of the 2016 General Election: How the Press Failed the Voters,” 2016.

(p.410)

(3.) Duncan J. Watts and David M. Rothschild, “Don’t Blame the Election on Fake News. Blame It on the Media,” Columbia Journalism Review, December 5, 2017, https://www.cjr.org/analysis/fake-news-media-election-trump.php.

(4.) Michael S. Schmidt, “Hillary Clinton Used Personal Email Account at State Dept., Possibly Breaking Rules,” The New York Times, March 2, 2015, sec. Politics, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/03/us/politics/hillary-clintons-use-of-private-email-at-state-department-raises-flags.html.

(5.) Jonathan Mahler, “Group’s Tactic on Hillary Clinton: Sue Her Again and Again,” New York Times, October 12, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/13/us/politics/judicial-watch-hillary-clinton.html.

(6.) Jo Becker and Mike McIntire, “Cash Flowed to Clinton Foundation Amid Russian Uranium Deal,” New York Times, April 15, 2015, sec. U.S., https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/24/us/cash-flowed-to-clinton-foundation-as-russians-pressed-for-control-of-uranium-company.html.

(7.) Breitbart News, “11 Explosive Clinton Cash Facts Mainstream Media Confirm Are Accurate,” Breitbart, April 26, 2015, http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/04/26/11-explosive-clinton-cash-facts-mainstream-media-confirm-are-accurate/.

(8.) Breitbart News, “Free Global Broadcast of ‘Clinton Cash’ Documentary Online at Breitbart.Com,” Breitbart, July 22, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/2016-presidential-race/2016/07/22/global-airing-clinton-cash-documentary-breitbart-email-sign/.

(9.) Daily Caller News Foundation, “IRS Response Clinton Foundation July 2016,” July 22, 2016, https://www.scribd.com/document/319384834/IRS-Response-Clinton-Foundation-July-2016. The entire relevant text of the letter was, “We have forwarded the information you submitted to our Exempt Organizations Examinations Program in Dallas. This program considers all referrals and will send you a separate acknowledgement letter when it receives your information.”

(10.) Richard Pollack, “EXCLUSIVE: IRS Launches Investigation Of Clinton Foundation,” Daily Caller, July 26, 2016, http://dailycaller.com/2016/07/26/exclusive-irs-launches-investigation-of-clinton-foundation/.

(11.) Fred Lucas et al., “IRS Looking into Clinton Foundation ‘Pay-to-Play’ Claims,” Fox News, July 27, 2016, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2016/07/27/irs-reviewing-clinton-foundation-pay-to-play-claims.html.

(12.) Post Editorial Board, “Why Didn’t the Democrats Even Mention the Clinton Foundation?,” New York Post, July 30, 2016, sec. Opinion, https://nypost.com/2016/07/29/why-didnt-the-democrats-even-mention-the-clinton-foundation/.

(13.) “Why Didn’t Democrats Even Mention The Clinton Foundation?,” Fox News, July 30, 2016, http://nation.foxnews.com/2016/07/30/why-didn-t-democrats-even-mention-clinton-foundation.

(14.) Breitbart News, “NY Post: Why Didn’t the Democrats Even Mention the Clinton Foundation?,” Breitbart, July 30, 2016, http://www.breitbart.com/ (p.411) 2016-presidential-race/2016/07/30/ny-post-why-didnt-the-democrats-even-mention-the-clinton-foundation/.

(15.) “‘Clinton Cash’ Author Doubts IRS Will Thoroughly Investigate Clinton Foundation,” Fox News Insider, July 30, 2016, http://insider.foxnews.com/2016/07/30/irs-launches-investigation-clinton-foundation-clinton-cash-author-reacts.

(16.) Linda Qiu, “Did Clinton Help Russia Obtain Uranium for Donations? Nope,” PolitiFact, June 30, 2016, http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2016/jun/30/donald-trump/donald-trump-inaccurately-suggests-clinton-got-pai/.

(17.) Michelle Ye Hee Lee, “Pro-Trump Ad Suggests Clinton Foundation Donations Contributed to Clintons’ Net Worth,” Washington Post, August 10, 2016, sec. Fact Checker, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/wp/2016/08/10/pro-trump-ad-suggests-clinton-foundation-donations-contributed-to-clintons-net-worth/.

(18.) “Judicial Watch Uncovers New Batch of Hillary Clinton Emails,” Judicial Watch, August 9, 2016, https://www.judicialwatch.org/press-room/press-releases/judicial-watch-uncovers-new-batch-hillary-clinton-emails/.

(20.) Mark Hensch, “Clinton Foundation Won’t Accept Foreign Money If Hillary Wins,” The Hill, August 18, 2016, http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/presidential-races/291911-clinton-foundation-to-alter-donation-rules-if-hillary.

(21.) Clinton Foundation, “Empowering People to Build Better Futures for Themselves, Their Families, and Their Communities,” Medium (blog), August 22, 2016, https://medium.com/@ClintonFdn/empowering-people-to-build-better-futures-for-themselves-their-families-and-their-communities-99d5843391fb.

(22.) Rosalind S. Helderman, Spencer S. Hsu, and Tom Hamburger, “Emails Reveal How Foundation Donors Got Access to Clinton and Her Close Aides at State Dept.,” Washington Post, August 22, 2016, sec. Politics, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/emails-reveal-how-foundation-donors-got-access-to-clinton-and-her-close-aides-at-state-dept/2016/08/22/345b5200-6882-11e6-8225-fbb8a6fc65bc_story.html.

(23.) Matthew Yglesias, “The AP’s Big Exposé on Hillary Meeting with Clinton Foundation Donors Is a Mess,” Vox, August 24, 2016, https://www.vox.com/2016/8/24/12618446/ap-clinton-foundation-meeting.

(24.) Donald J. Trump, “And the FAKE NEWS Winners Are . . . ,” Twitter, January 17, 2018, https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/953794085751574534.

(25.) ABC News, “ABC News Statement on Michael Flynn Report,” ABC News, December 2, 2017, http://abcnews.go.com/US/abc-news-statement-michael-flynn-report/story?id=51536475; Brian Ross, Matthew Mosk, and Josh Margolin, “Flynn Prepared to Testify That Trump Directed Him to Contact Russians about ISIS, Confidant Says,” ABC News, December 1, 2017, http://abcnews. (p.412) go.com/Politics/michael-flynn-charged-making-false-statements-fbi-documents/story?id=50849354.

(26.) Oliver Darcy, “ABC News Corrects Bombshell Flynn Report,” CNNMoney, December 1, 2017, http://money.cnn.com/2017/12/01/media/abc-news-flynn-correction/index.html.

(27.) Brad Reed, “Mike Flynn ‘Prepared to Testify against Trump and His Family’ in Mueller’s Russia Probe: Report,” Raw Story, December 1, 2017, https://www.rawstory.com/2017/12/mike-flynn-prepared-to-testify-against-trump-and-his-family-in-muellers-russia-probe-report/; Linley Sanders, “Who Told Michael Flynn to Talk to Russians? He Will Name Trump, Confidant Says,” Newsweek, December 1, 2017, http://www.newsweek.com/who-told-michael-flynn-talk-russians-728754.

(28.) Casey Michel, “This Is Why Flynn’s Guilty Plea Should Terrify Trump,” ThinkProgress, December 1, 2017, https://thinkprogress.org/mike-flynn-guilty-plea-e5fb7c38a229/.

(29.) Bill Palmer, “Congressmen Say Jared Kushner’s Arrest Is Coming and Donald Trump Will Be Ousted from Office,” Palmer Report (blog), December 1, 2017, http://www.palmerreport.com/politics/congress-kushner-ousted/6387/.

(30.) Based on a review of all stories in our set that mentioned the words “Flynn” and “Russia” in the same sentence in the period following the guilty plea.

(31.) Brad Reed, “Don Jr and Other Trump Campaign Officials Were Offered Secret Link to WikiLeaks Hacks: Report,” Raw Story, December 8, 2017, https://www.rawstory.com/2017/12/don-jr-and-other-trump-campaign-officials-were-offered-secret-link-to-wikileaks-hacks-report/.

(32.) Allegra Kirkland, “CNN Issues Major Correction To Story On Email Pointing Trumps To Hacked Docs,” Talking Points Memo, December 8, 2017, https://talkingpointsmemo.com/muckraker/trump-campaign-sent-email-with-access-hacked-wikileaks-documents.

(33.) Alex Kasprak, “‘Raftergate’ Explained: Was Trump’s Pensacola Rally ‘Packed to the Rafters?,’ ” Snopes, December 9, 2017, https://www.snopes.com/news/2017/12/09/was-trumps-pensacola-rally-packed-rafters/.

(34.) Gloria Borger et al., “Comey Unlikely to Judge on Obstruction,” CNN, June 7, 2017, https://www.cnn.com/2017/06/06/politics/comey-testimony-refute-trump-russian-investigation/index.html.

(35.) Paul Krugman, “What Happened on Election Day,” New York Times, October 9, 2016, sec. Opinion, paul-krugman-the-economic-fallout.

(36.) The original link was http://www.cnn.com/2017/06/22/politics/russian-investment-fund-under-investigation/index.htm. As we were preparing the book, it was still available on the Internet Archive. It has since been removed.

(37.) Matthew Boyle, “Very Fake News: CNN Pushes Refurbished Russia Conspiracy, Inaccurately Claims Investments Under Investigation,” Breitbart, June 23, 2017, http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2017/06/23/very-fake-news-cnn-pushes-refurbished-russia-conspiracy-inaccurately-claims-investment-fund-under- (p.413) investigation/; “Russian Investment Fund Denies CNN Report of US Sanctions Regime Violations,” Sputnik News, June 23, 2017, https://sptnkne.ws/eHtq.

(38.) Jim Dalrymple II and Jon Passantino, “CNN Deleted A Story Linking Trump And Russia, Then Issued A Retraction After Questions Were Raised,” BuzzFeed, June 24, 2017, https://www.buzzfeed.com/jimdalrympleii/cnn-deleted-a-story-linking-trump-and-russia-then-issued-a.

(39.) “Editor’s Note,” CNN, June 23, 2017, https://www.cnn.com/2017/06/23/politics/editors-note/index.html; Erik Wemple, “Three CNN Employees Resign over Retracted Story on Russia Ties,” Washington Post, June 26, 2017, sec. Opinion, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/erik-wemple/wp/2017/06/26/three-cnn-employees-resign-over-retracted-story-on-russia-ties/.

(40.) Ilya Arkhipov and Patrick Donahue, “Trump Aide Talks Investment With Sanctioned Kremlin Fund,” Bloomberg, January 17, 2017, sec. Politics, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-01-17/in-davos-trump-aide-talks-deals-with-sanctioned-kremlin-fund.

(41.) Steven T. Mnuchin, “Mnuchin Response to Elizabeth Warren,” January 30, 2017, https://www.warren.senate.gov/files/documents/Mnuchin_Response-20170130.pdf.

(42.) Lisa Friedman, “Scientists Fear Trump Will Dismiss Blunt Climate Report,” New York Times, August 7, 2017, sec. Climate, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/07/climate/climate-change-drastic-warming-trump.html.

(43.) Oil Change International, “Leaked Government Report Sounds Alarm on Climate Change Before Trump Could Suppress It,” EcoWatch, August 8, 2017, https://www.ecowatch.com/leaked-climate-change-report-2470544185.html.

(46.) Katharine Hayhoe, “Important to Point Out That This Report Was Already Accessible to Anyone Who Cared to Read It during Public Review & Comment Time. Few Did.,” Twitter, August 7, 2017, https://twitter.com/KHayhoe/status/894757321838010368?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw&ref_url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.foxnews.com%2Fpolitics%2F2017%2F08%2F08%2Fscientists-call-out-new-york-times-for-incorrect-claim-about-climate-report.html; Katharine Hayhoe, “The 3rd Order Draft of Climate Science Special Report Is Still Available via the National Academy of Sciences Public Access File, on Request,” Twitter, August 8, 2017, https://twitter.com/KHayhoe/status/894932418347634688?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw&ref_url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.foxnews.com%2Fpolitics%2F2017%2F08%2F08%2Fscientists-call-out-new-york-times-for-incorrect-claim-about-climate-report.html.

(p.414)

(47.) Erik Wemple, “New York Times Guilty of Large Screw-up on Climate-Change Story,” Washington Post, August 9, 2017, sec. Opinion, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/erik-wemple/wp/2017/08/09/new-york-times-guilty-of-large-screw-up-on-climate-change-story/; Alex Pappas, “Scientists Call out New York Times for Incorrect Claim about Climate Report,” Fox News, August 8, 2017, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2017/08/08/scientists-call-out-new-york-times-for-incorrect-claim-about-climate-report.html.

Chapter 7

(1.) Andrew Marantz, “Trolls of Trump,” New Yorker, October 31, 2016, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/10/31/trolls-for-trump.

(2.) Hannity.com Staff, “LEAKED EMAIL Appears To Link Clinton Campaign Chairman To Bizarre Occult Ritual,” Sean Hannity Show, November 4, 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20161107062645/http://www.hannity.com:80/articles/election-493995/leaked-email-appears-to-link-clinton-15270858/; Sean Hannity, “LEAKED EMAIL Appears to Link Clinton Campaign Chairman to Bizarre Occult Ritual Http://Bit.ly/2f2kyXP,” Twitter post, November 4, 2016, https://twitter.com/seanhannity/status/794612729852166144; Edmund Kozak, “WikiLeaks: Clinton Campaign Chair Participated in Occult Magic,” LifeZette, November 4, 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20161109010216/http://www.lifezette.com:80/polizette/wikileaks-podesta-practices-occult-magic/?utm_content=buffer05465&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer; Paul Joseph Watson, “‘Spirit Cooking’: Clinton Campaign Chairman Practices Bizarre Occult Ritual,” Infowars (blog), November 4, 2016, http://www.drudgereportarchives.com/dsp/search.htm?searchFor=%22WIKI%20WICCAN%3A%20PODESTA%20PRACTICES%20OCCULT%20MAGIC%22; Douglas Ernst, “WikiLeaks: Podesta Invited to ‘Spirit’ Dinner; Host’s Known ‘recipes’ Demand Breast Milk, Sperm,” Washington Times, November 4, 2016, https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/nov/4/wikileaks-john-podesta-invited-to-spirit-dinner-ho/.

(3.) Mike Cernovich, “Podesta Emails Reveal Clinton’s Inner Circle as Sex Cult with Connections to Human Trafficking,” Danger & Play, November 3, 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20161104093838/http://www.dangerandplay.com/2016/11/03/podesta-emails-reveal-clintons-inner-circle-as-sex-cult-with-connections-to-human-trafficking/.

(4.) Liam Stack, “Who Is Mike Cernovich? A Guide,” New York Times, April 5, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/05/us/politics/mike-cernovich-bio-who.html.

(5.) BBC Trending, “The Social Media Star Who Flipped to Trump,” BBC, October 5, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-trending-37507542.

(6.) WikiLeaks, “The Podestas’ ‘Spirit Cooking’ dinner? It’s Not What You Think. It’s Blood, Sperm and Breastmilk. But Mostly Blood.,” Twitter post, November 4, 2016, https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/794450623404113920.

(p.415)

(7.) Cassandra Fairbanks, “Internet Is On Fire With Speculation That Podesta Emails Contain Code for Child Sex,” WeAreChange, November 3, 2016, https://wearechange.org/internet-fire-speculation-podesta-emails-contain-code-child-sex/.

(8.) PleadingtheYiff, “BREAKING: I Believe I Have Connected a Convicted Child Abductor Who Was Caught Stealing Children in Haiti with the Clintons,” Reddit, November 3, 2016, https://www.reddit.com/r/The_Donald/comments/5aupnh/breaking_i_believe_i_have_connected_a_convicted/.

(9.) Charley Keyes, “State Department Rebuffs Call for Clinton Intervention in Haiti Case,” February 9, 2010, http://www.cnn.com/2010/POLITICS/02/09/haiti.clinton.arrests/index.html; Jill Dougherty and Lonzo Cook, “U.S. Missionaries Sent to Separate Haitian Prisons; No Ruling on Bail,” CNN, February 5, 2010, http://www.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/02/05/haiti.arrests/index.html.

(10.) Evens Sanon, “Haiti Prosecutors Seek 6 Months in Prison for US Woman Who Tried to Remove Kids after Quake,” Associated Press, May 13, 2010, http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/05/13/haiti-prosecutors-seek-months-prison-woman-tried-remove-kids-quake-1947670658.html.

(11.) Andrew Anglin, “Top Right-Wing Tweeter Jared Wyand Goes Full-1488, Condemns Jews,” Daily Stormer, November 21, 2016, https://dstormer6em3i4km.onion.link/top-right-wing-tweeter-jared-wyand-goes-full-1488-condemns-jews/.

(12.) Private communications with a firm that conducted forensic research into Twitter campaigns involving Russian campaigns.

(13.) BedriddenSam, “SOMEONE TELL ME IM WRONG.”

(14.) LiquidRitz, “Official Thread for Leaks and Evidence Regarding the Government Sex Ring: Keep All Posts in This Thread,” Reddit, November 4, 2016, https://www.reddit.com/r/WikiLeaks/comments/5b4xt9/official_thread_for_leaks_and_evidence_regarding/.

(15.) Fairbanks, “Internet Is On Fire.”

(16.) dcpizzagate, “DC PizzaGate: A Primer UPDATED 07/07/17,” Suspected Pedophile Ring Exposed, November 7, 2016, https://dcpizzagate.wordpress.com/2016/11/07/first-blog-post/. “ ‘Jimmy Comet’: The Weak Link in Podesta Pedo Ring,” Reddit, November 7, 2016, https://www.reddit.com/r/conspiracy/comments/5bp6ph/jimmy_comet_the_weak_link_in_podesta_pedo_ring/.

(17.) Jim Hoft, “Wikileaks: Podesta Involved in ‘Spirit Cooking’ Dinners and Cult Activity,” Gateway Pundit, November 4, 2016, http://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2016/11/wikileaks-podesta-involved-spirit-cooking-dinners-cult-activity/.

(18.) Alice Marwick and Rebecca Lewis, “Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online,” New York: Data & Society Research Institute, 2017; Gabriel Emile Hine et al., “Kek, Cucks, and God Emperor Trump: A Measurement Study of 4chan’s Politically Incorrect Forum and Its Effects on the Web,” ArXiv Preprint ArXiv:1610.03452, 2016.

(19.) burninglegs, “Wikileaks Is Dropping a Huge Bombshell on 11/3/2016. This Is the Big One.,” Reddit, November 3, 2016, https://www.reddit.com/r/The_Donald/ (p.416) comments/5axjjh/wikileaks_is_dropping_a_huge_bombshell_on_1132016/. The first Reddit post suggesting that WikiLeaks was about to release email and videos that would probe a pedophilia scandal seems to be have been published on November 3, 4:00 p.m. UTC, that is, late morning on the East Coast in the United States. It began with a screenshot from 4chan, purportedly by WikiLeaks.

(20.) followingthecolors, “[WARNING: GRAPHIC] I Don’t Think You Guys Appreciate the Trauma /Pol/ Is Going through Tracking down the Absolutely off-the-Deep-End Shit Podesta Is Into. Here’s a Small Taste.,” Reddit, November 3, 2016, https://www.reddit.com/r/The_Donald/comments/5b08cy/warning_graphic_i_dont_think_you_guys_appreciate/; TigerClaws, “Wikileaks: Podesta Participates in ‘Spirit Cooking,’ ” Free Republic, November 3, 2016, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/3488913/posts.

(21.) BedriddenSam, “SOMEONE TELL ME IM WRONG!!! This Invite to A ‘pizza Party’ includes the Name Maya Harris, Whose Sister Is Kamal Harris Deputy District Attorney Who SPECIALIZEs IN CHILD SEXUAL ASSAULT CASES!!!,” Reddit, November 3, 2016, https://www.reddit.com/r/The_Donald/comments/5azc9k/someone_tell_me_im_wrong_this_invite_to_a_pizza/.

Chapter 8

(1.) Peter Pomerantsev, Nothing Is True and Everything Is Possible: The Surreal Heart of the New Russia (United States of America: PublicAffairs, 2014).

(2.) Ben Nimmo, “Anatomy of an Info-War: How Russia’s Propaganda Machine Works, and How to Counter It,” May 19, 2015, http://www.stopfake.org/en/anatomy-of-an-info-war-how-russia-s-propagandamachine-works-and-how-to-counter-it/, quoted in Keir Giles, Handbook of Russian Information Warfare, NDC Fellowship Monograph Series 9 (NATO Defense College, Research Division, 2016), https://krypt3ia.files.wordpress.com/2016/12/fm_9.pdf.

(3.) Bruce Etling et al., “Public Discourse in the Russian Blogosphere: Mapping RuNet Politics and Mobilization,” Berkman Center Research Publication (Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, October 19, 2010), https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1698344.

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(99.) Stukal et al., “Detecting Bots on Russian Political Twitter.”

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(100.) Stefano Cresci et al., “The Paradigm-Shift of Social Spambots: Evidence, Theories, and Tools for the Arms Race,” in Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion (International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, 2017), 963–972, http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3055135.

(101.) In full disclosure, the email reports that experts were consulted, including at the Berkman Center at Harvard, where all three of us were then, in the preparation of this memo. None of us remember whether we were consulted, but Yochai later wrote a detailed article explaining why WikiLeaks had to be treated no differently from the New York Times or the Guardian, which had also published the war logs and cables, and then participated in the defense of Chelsea Manning’s prosecution for aiding the enemy.

(102.) “Under Intense Pressure to Silence Wikileaks, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton Proposed Drone Strike on Julian Assange,” True Pundit (blog), October 2, 2016, https://truepundit.com/under-intense-pressure-to-silence-wikileaks-secretary-of-state-hillary-clinton-proposed-drone-strike-on-julian-assange/.

(103.) “Kremlin-Linked Network Amplifies ‘alt-Right’ Media.”

Chapter 9

(1.) Joshua Green and Sasha Issenberg, “Inside the Trump Bunker, With Days to Go,” Bloomberg, October 27, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-27/inside-the-trump-bunker-with-12-days-to-go.

(2.) Philip Bump, “Donald Trump’s Campaign Manager Is Out. Here Are the Brutal Numbers That Tell Us Why.,” Washington Post, June 20, 2016, sec. The Fix, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/06/19/the-brutal-numbers-behind-a-very-bad-month-for-donald-trump/.

(3.) Philip Bump, “How Facebook Plans to Become One of the Most Powerful Tools in Politics,” Washington Post, November 26, 2014, sec. The Fix, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2014/11/26/how-facebook-plans-to-become-one-of-the-most-powerful-tools-in-politics/.

(4.) Jeanne Cummings, “Rove’s Patented Strategies Will Endure,” Politico, August 13, 2007, https://www.politico.com/news/stories/0807/5375.html.

(5.) Alexis C. Madrigal, “When the Nerds Go Marching In,” The Atlantic, November 16, 2012, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/11/when-the-nerds-go-marching-in/265325/.

(6.) Darren Samuelsohn, “Hillary’s Nerd Squad,” Politico, March 25, 2015, https://www.politico.com/story/2015/03/hillarys-nerd-squad-116402.html.

(7.) Mike Allen and Kennth P. Vogel, “Inside the Koch Data Mine,” Politico, December 8, 2014, http://www.politico.com/story/2014/12/koch-brothers-rnc-113359.html.

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(8.) Jane Mayer, “The Reclusive Hedge-Fund Tycoon Behind the Trump Presidency,” The New Yorker, March 27, 2017, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/03/27/the-reclusive-hedge-fund-tycoon-behind-the-trump-presidency.

(9.) Daniel Kreiss and Shannon C. McGregor, “Technology Firms Shape Political Communication: The Work of Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter, and Google With Campaigns During the 2016 U.S. Presidential Cycle,” Political Communication 35, no. 2 (October 26, 2017): 155–177, https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2017.1364814.

(10.) Green and Issenberg, “Trump Bunker.”

(11.) Nicholas Confessore and Karen Yourish, “$2 Billion Worth of Free Media for Donald Trump,” New York Times, March 15, 2016, sec. The Upshot, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/16/upshot/measuring-donald-trumps-mammoth-advantage-in-free-media.html.

(12.) Zeynep Tufekci, “Beware the Big Data Campaign,” New York Times, November 16, 2012, sec. Opinion, https://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/17/opinion/beware-the-big-data-campaign.html.

(13.) Zeynep Tufekci, “Engineering the Public: Big Data, Surveillance and Computational Politics,” First Monday 19, no. 7 (July 7, 2014), https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i7.4901.

(14.) Dipayan Ghosh and Ben Scott, “#Digitaldeceipt: The Technologies Behind Precision Propaganda on The Internet” (New America Foundation and the Shorenstein Center at Harvard Kennedy School, January 2018), https://na-production.s3.amazonaws.com/documents/digital-deceit-final-v3.pdf.

(15.) Michal Kosinski, David Stillwell, and Thore Graepel, “Private Traits and Attributes Are Predictable from Digital Records of Human Behavior,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 15 (April 9, 2013): 5802–5805, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1218772110.

(16.) Nicholas Confessore and Danny Hakim, “Data Firm Says ‘Secret Sauce’ Aided Trump; Many Scoff,” New York Times, March 6, 2017, sec. Politics, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/06/us/politics/cambridge-analytica.html.

(17.) Will Oremus, “The Real Scandal Isn’t Cambridge Analytica. It’s Facebook’s Whole Business Model.,” Slate Magazine, March 20, 2018, https://slate.com/technology/2018/03/the-real-scandal-isnt-cambridge-analytica-its-facebooks-whole-business-model.html.

(18.) “Revealed: Trump’s Election Consultants Filmed Saying They Use Bribes and Sex Workers to Entrap Politicians,” Channel 4 News, March 19, 2018, https://www.channel4.com/news/cambridge-analytica-revealed-trumps-election-consultants-filmed-saying-they-use-bribes-and-sex-workers-to-entrap-politicians-investigation.

(19.) As the Cambridge Analytica story was exploding, a discussion on a listserv of academics working on fake news and disinformation raised several thoughtful considerations that suggest a good deal of skepticism about the likelihood that microtargeting based on Facebook data is in fact that much more efficient or (p.427) effective than the already-existing arsenal of tools at the disposal of political campaign operatives. The next few paragraphs are based on research we did to flesh out comments made on that list by Duncan Watts, Brendan Nyhan, David Lazer, and David Rand. Any errors here are our own.

(20.) Wu Youyou, Michal Kosinski, and David Stillwell, “Computer-Based Personality Judgments Are More Accurate than Those Made by Humans,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 4 (January 27, 2015): 1036–1040, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1418680112.

(21.) S.C. Matz et al., “Psychological Targeting as an Effective Approach to Digital Mass Persuasion,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, no. 48 (November 28, 2017): 12714–12719, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1710966114.

(22.) Michael A. Bailey, Daniel J. Hopkins, and Todd Rogers, “Unresponsive and Unpersuaded: The Unintended Consequences of a Voter Persuasion Effort,” Political Behavior 38, no. 3 (September 2016): 713–746, https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-016-9338-8.

(23.) Eitan D. Hersh and Brian F. Schaffner, “Targeted Campaign Appeals and the Value of Ambiguity,” Journal of Politics 75, no. 2 (April 1, 2013): 520–534, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381613000182.

(24.) David Nickerson and Todd Rogers, “Political Campaigns and Big Data,” HKS Working Paper No. RWP13-045 (February 25, 2014), https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2354474.

(25.) Randall A. Lewis and Justin M. Rao, “The Unfavorable Economics of Measuring the Returns to Advertising,” SSRN Electronic Journal, September 18, 2014, https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2367103.

(26.) Samidh Chakrabarti, “Hard Questions: What Effect Does Social Media Have on Democracy?,” Facebook Newsroom (blog), January 22, 2018, https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2018/01/effect-social-media-democracy/.

(27.) Elisa Shearer and Jeffrey Gottfried, “News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017” (Pew Research Center, September 7, 2017), http://www.journalism.org/2017/09/07/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2017/.

(28.) Craig Silverman et al., “Inside The Partisan Fight For Your Facebook News Feed,” BuzzFeed, August 8, 2017, https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/inside-the-partisan-fight-for-your-news-feed.

(29.) Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011).

(30.) “Campaign ‘92: Survey VIII” (Pew Research Center, July 8, 1992), http://www.people-press.org/1992/07/08/campaign-92-survey-viii/.

(31.) Craig Silverman et al., “Hyperpartisan Facebook Pages Are Publishing False And Misleading Information At An Alarming Rate,” BuzzFeed, October 20, 2016, https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/partisan-fb-pages-analysis.

(32.) Hunt Allcott and Matthew Gentzkow, “Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 31, no. 2 (January 19, 2017): 211–236.

(p.428)

(33.) Andrew Guess, Brendan Nyhan, and Jason Reifler, “Selective Exposure to Misinformation: Evidence from the Consumption of Fake News during the 2016 U.S. Presidential Campaign,” Jan 9, 2018, 49, http://www.dartmouth.edu/~nyhan/fake-news-2016.pdf.

Part Four

(1.) Nathaniel Persily, “Can Democracy Survive the Internet?,” Journal of Democracy 28, no. 2 (April 2017): 63–76.

(2.) Cass R. Sunstein, Republic.com (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).

(3.) Donald J. Trump, Twitter, March 17, 2018, https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/975057131136274432.

Chapter 10

(1.) Congressman Charlie Dent, “Dent Statement on Decision Not to Seek 8th Term,” Congressman Charlie Dent, September 8, 2017, https://dent.house.gov/2017/9/dent-statement-on-decision-not-to-seek-8th-term.

(2.) “List of U.S. Congress Incumbents Who Are Not Running for Re-Election in 2018—Ballotpedia,” Ballotpedia, accessed April 4, 2018, https://ballotpedia.org/List_of_U.S._Congress_incumbents_who_are_not_running_for_re-election_in_2018.

(3.) Clio Andris et al., “The Rise of Partisanship and Super-Cooperators in the U.S. House of Representatives,” PLOS ONE 10, no. 4 (April 21, 2015), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123507.

(4.) Ira Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America (New York; London: W.W. Norton, 2006).

(5.) Bill D. Moyers, Moyers Oon America: A Journalist and His Times (New York: Anchor Books, 2005).

(6.) Warren Weaver Jr., “The Emerging Republican Majority,” The New York Times, September 21, 1969, http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/books/phillips-emerging.pdf.; James Boyd, “Nixon’s Southern Strategy,” The New York Times, May 17, 1970, https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1970/05/17/354962432.pdf.

(7.) Kevin Phillips, The Emerging Republican Majority, James Madison Library in American Politics Series (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014).

(9.) Nolan McCarty, Keith T. Poole, and Howard Rosenthal, Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006), https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/polarized-america.

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(10.) “Introduction,” Studies in American Political Development 30, no. 2 (2016): 95–96, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0898588X16000109.

(11.) Nolan McCarty, “In Defense of DW-NOMINATE,” Studies in American Political Development 30, no. 2 (October 2016): 172–184, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0898588X16000110.

(12.) Jacob S. Hacker and Paul Pierson, Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer—and Turned Its Back on the Middle Class (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010).

(13.) Matthew Grossmann and David A. Hopkins, Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

(14.) Morris P. Fiorina, “Has the American Public Polarized?,” Hoover Institution Essays on Contemporary American Politics 2 (September 2016): 1–24; Marc J. Hetherington, “Putting Polarization in Perspective,” British Journal of Political Science 39, no. 2 (2009): 413–448; Matthew Levendusky, The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and How Conservatives Became Republicans (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009).

(15.) Yphtach Lelkes, “Mass Polarization: Manifestations and Measurements,” Public Opinion Quarterly 80, no. S1 (January 1, 2016): 392–410, https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfw005.

(18.) Alan I. Abramowitz and Kyle L. Saunders, “Is Polarization a Myth?,” The Journal of Politics 70, no. 2 (April 1, 2008): 542–555, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381608080493.

(20.) Fiorina, Morris P., Samuel J. Abrams, and Jeremy Pope. Culture war?: The Myth of a Polarized America. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005.

(21.) American National Election Studies, “Data Center,” http://www.electionstudies.org/studypages/download/datacenter_all_NoData.php.

(23.) Fiorina, Morris P., and Samuel J. Abrams. Disconnect: The Breakdown of Representation in American Politics. Vol. 11 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012).

(24.) Abramowitz, Alan I., and Kyle L. Saunders. “Is polarization a myth?.” The Journal of Politics 70, no. 2 (2008): 542–555.

(25.) David E. Broockman, David E. “Approaches to studying policy representation.,” Legislative Studies Quarterly 41, no. 1 (2016): 181–215.

(26.) Philip E. Converse, “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics,” Critical Review 18, no. 1–3 (1964): 1–74, https://doi.org/10.1080/08913810608443650.

(27.) Donald R. Kinder and Nathan P. Kalmoe, Neither Liberal Nor Conservative: Ideological Innocence in the American Public (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017).

(p.430)

(28.) Christopher H. Achen and Larry M. Bartels, Democracy for Realists: Why Elections Do Not Produce Responsive Government (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016), https://doi.org/10.1002/polq.12663.

(29.) Angus Campbell et al., The American Voter (New York: John Wiley, 1960).

(31.) Donald R. Kinder and Nathan P. Kalmoe, Neither Liberal Nor Conservative: Ideological Innocence in the American Public (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017), 133.

(32.) Gabriel S. Lenz, Follow the Leader?: How Voters Respond to Politicians’ Policies and Performance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012); John Zaller, The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

(33.) David E. Broockman and Daniel M. Butler, “The Causal Effects of Elite Position-Taking on Voter Attitudes: Field Experiments with Elite Communication,” American Journal of Political Science 61, no. 1 (December 2015): 208–221, https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12243.

(34.) Michael Barber, “Does Party Trump Ideology? Disentangling Party and Ideology in America,” n.d., https://www.dropbox.com/s/ofh5bzwnt4ixwdj/Does_Party_Trump_Ideology%3F.pdf?dl=0.

(35.) David A. Graham, “Trump Is Radicalizing the Democratic Party,” The Atlantic, October 27, 2017, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/10/symmetric-polarization/544059/.

(36.) Donald P. Green, Bradley Palmquist, and Eric Schickler, Partisan Hearts and Minds: Political Parties and the Social Identities of Voters (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002), https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592703510428.

(37.) Leonie Huddy, Lilliana Mason, and Lene Aarøe, “Expressive Partisanship: Campaign Involvement, Political Emotion, and Partisan Identity,” American Political Science Review 109, no. 1 (February 2015): 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055414000604.

(38.) Lilliana Mason, “Why Are Americans so Angry This Election Season? Here’s New Research That Helps Explain It.,” Washington Post, March 10, 2016, sec. Monkey Cage, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/03/10/why-are-americans-so-angry-this-election-season-heres-new-research-that-helps-explain-it/.

(39.) Lilliana Mason, “ ‘I Disrespectfully Agree’: The Differential Effects of Partisan Sorting on Social and Issue Polarization,” American Journal of Political Science 59, no. 1 (2015): 128–145.

(40.) Donald R. Kinder and Cindy D. Kam, Us Against Them: Ethnocentric Foundations of American Opinion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2011.00833.x.

(41.) Miller, Patrick R., and Pamela Johnston Conover. “Red and blue states of mind: Partisan hostility and voting in the United States.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 2 (2015): 225–239.

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(42.) Dimock, Michael, Carroll Doherty, Jocelyn Kiley, and Russ Oates. “Political polarization in the American public.” Pew Research Center (2014).

(43.) Shanto Iyengar and Sean J. Westwood, “Fear and Loathing across Party Lines: New Evidence on Group Polarization,” American Journal of Political Science 59, no. 3 (2015): 690–707.

(44.) Shanto Iyengar, Gaurav Sood, and Yphtach Lelkes, “Affect, Not Ideology: A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization,” Public Opinion Quarterly 76, no. 3 (September 2012): 405–431, https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfs038.

(46.) Alan I. Abramowitz and Steven W. Webster, “Negative Partisanship: Why Americans Dislike Parties But Behave Like Rabid Partisans,” Political Psychology 39 (February 1, 2018): 119–135, https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12479.

Chapter 11

(1.) Quoted in: Nicole Hemmer, Messengers of the Right: Conservative Media and the Transformation of American Politics, Politics and Culture in Modern America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016), 157.

(2.) Jeffrey M. Berry and Sarah Sobieraj, The Outrage Industry: Political Opinion Media and the New Incivility, Studies in Postwar American Political Development (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 12–13; “November 2012 Ratings: Fox News Daytime Shows Have Best Months Ever,” accessed February 14, 2018, http://www.adweek.com/tvnewser/november-2012-ratings-fox-news-daytime-shows-have-best-months-ever/157704.

(3.) A.J. Katz, “November 2016 Ratings: Fox News Has Most-Watched Month Since 2012,” Adweek, November 30, 2016, http://adweek.it/2gWcPfF.

(4.) A.J. Katz, “November 2017 Ratings: Fox News Is Basic Cable’s Most-Watched Network For 17 Months,” November 29, 2016, http://adweek.it/2i1MT0L.

(5.) Jeffrey Gottfried, Michael B1arthel, and Amy Mitchell, “Trump, Clinton Voters Divided in Their Main Source for Election News,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), January 18, 2017, http://www.journalism.org/2017/01/18/trump-clinton-voters-divided-in-their-main-source-for-election-news/.

(7.) Id. Berry and Sobieraj, at 39–41.

(8.) Id. Berry and Sobieraj, at 42–45.

(9.) Joanne M. Miller, Kyle L. Saunders, and Christina E. Farhart, “Conspiracy Endorsement as Motivated Reasoning: The Moderating Roles of Political Knowledge and Trust,” American Journal of Political Science 60, no. 4 (2016): 824–844, https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12234. Adam J. Berinsky, “The Roots of False Beliefs: Political Rumors in America from 2010–2017” draft chapter.

(10.) Theda Skocpol and Vanessa Williamson, The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), 125–126.

(p.432)

(11.) Michael Schudson, Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers, (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1995).

(12.) David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (Oxford, [England]; Cambridge, MA, USA: Blackwell, 1989); James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed, Nachdr., Yale Agrarian Studies (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008); Charles S. Maier, “Between Taylorism and Technocracy: European Ideologies and the Vision of Industrial Productivity in the 1920s,” Journal of Contemporary History 5, no. 2 (1970): 27–61; Charles S. Maier, “The Politics of Productivity: Foundations of American International Economic Policy after World War II,” International Organization 31, no. 04 (1977): 607–633.

(13.) Masses Publishing Co. v. Patten, 244 F. 535 (S.D.N.Y. 1917).

(14.) Schenck v. United States, 249 U.S. 47 (1919).

(15.) Abrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616 (1919).

(16.) Sheldon Marcus, Father Coughlin: The Tumultuous Life of the Priest of the Little Flower, 1st ed. (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973).

(17.) Institute for Propaganda Analysis, Alfred McClung Lee, and Elizabeth (Briant) Lee, eds., The Fine Art of Propaganda (New York: Octagon Books, 1972).

(18.) Victor Pickard “‘Whether the Giants Should Be Slain or Persuaded to Be Good’ ”: Revisiting the Hutchins Commission and the Role of Media in a Democratic Society,” Critical Studies in Media Communication Vol. 27, No. 4, (October 2010): pp. 391–411.

(19.) Ira Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America (New York; London: W.W. Norton, 2006).

(21.) Id. Hemmer, at 3–48.

(22.) Id. Hemmer, at 167–170.

(23.) Tom W. Smith, Peter Marsden, Michael Hout, and Jibum Kim, General Social Surveys, 1972–2016 [machine-readable data file]. Data accessed from the GSS Data Explorer website at http://gssdataexplorer.norc.org.

(24.) Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (New York: Pantheon Books, 2002).

(25.) Ben H. Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly, 5th ed. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1997).

(26.) Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006).

(27.) Stanley M. Besen and Robert W. Crandall, “The Deregulation of Cable Television,” Law and Contemporary Problems 44, no. 1 (1981): 77–124, https://doi.org/10.2307/1191387.

(28.) “Campaign ’92: Survey VIII” (Pew Research Center, July 8, 1992), http://www.people-press.org/1992/07/08/campaign-92-survey-viii/.

(p.433)

(29.) Peter G. Horsfield, Religious Television: The American Experience (New York: Longman Press, 1984), 8.

(30.) Jeffrey K. Hadden and Anson D. Shupe, Televangelism: Power and Politics on God’s Frontier (New York: H. Holt, 1988), 8–10.

(31.) Id. Jeffrey K. Hadden and Anson D. Shupe, at 138.

(32.) Razelle Frankl, Televangelism: The Marketing of Popular Religion (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986), Table 2, 92. Razelle Frankl, 118.

(33.) Jeffrey K. Hadden and Anson D. Shupe, Televangelism: Power and Politics on God’s Frontier, 155–159.

(34.) Paul Starr, The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications (New York: Basic Books, 2004), 382–383; Tim Wu, The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires, 1st Vintage Books ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2011), chap. 9.

(35.) Brian Regal, Radio: The Life Story of a Technology, Greenwood Technographies (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005).

(36.) Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Joseph N. Cappella, Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 45–46.

(37.) Brent Staples, “Just a Toaster with Pictures,” The New York Times, February 8, 1987, https://www.nytimes.com/1987/02/08/books/just-a-toaster-with-pictures.html.

(39.) Lewis Grossberger, “The Rush Hours,” The New York Times Magazine, December 16, 1990, https://www.nytimes.com/1990/12/16/magazine/the-rush-hours.html.

(41.) Id. Hemmer, at 270–271.

(42.) Id. Hemmer, at 271.

(43.) Jamieson and Cappella, Echo Chamber, xiv; Hemmer, Messengers of the Right, 171.

(44.) Jamieson and Cappella, Echo Chamber, 46.

(45.) “TV News Viewership Declines,” TV News Viewship Declines (Pew Research Center, May 13, 1996), http://www.people-press.org/1996/05/13/other-important-findings-12/.

(46.) Jamieson and Cappella, Echo Chamber.

(47.) Id. Jamieson and Cappella, at 46; “Is Rush Limbaugh’s Business Model in Trouble?,” Politico Magazine, accessed February 9, 2018, https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/05/is-rush-limbaugh-in-trouble-talk-radio-213914; “Rush Limbaugh’s Audience May Be So Much Smaller Than You Think”—Business Insider, accessed February 9, 2018, http://www.businessinsider.com/rush-limbaughs-audience-may-be-so-much-smaller-than-you-think-2012-3.

(48.) Maria Figueroa, Damone Richardson, and Pam Whitefield, The Clear Picture on Clear Channel Communications, Inc.: A Corporate Profile (Ithaca: ILR School, Cornell University, 2004).

(p.434)

(49.) “State of the Media—Audio Today 2017” (Nielsen, June 22, 2017), 3, http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports/2017/state-of-the-media-audio-today-2017.

(50.) John Halpin et al., “The Structural Imbalance of Political Talk Radio,” June 22, 2007, https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/issues/2007/06/pdf/talk_radio.pdf.

(51.) Skocpol and Williamson, The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism, 125–126.

(52.) “Audio Today: Radio 2016—Appealing Far and Wide,” (Nielsen, February 25, 2016), http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports/2016/audio-today-radio-2016-appealing-far-and-wide.

(53.) Bruce Bartlett, “How Fox News Changed American Media and Political Dynamics,” SSRN Electronic Journal, June 3, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2604679.

(54.) Amy Mitchell et al., “Political Polarization & Media Habits,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), October 21, 2014, http://www.journalism.org/2014/10/21/political-polarization-media-habits/.

(56.) Gallup Inc., “Democrats’ Confidence in Mass Media Rises Sharply From 2016,” Gallup.com, accessed March 1, 2018, http://news.gallup.com/poll/219824/democrats-confidence-mass-media-rises-sharply-2016.aspx.

(57.) Samantha Smith, “5 Facts about America’s Political Independents,” Pew Research Center (blog), July 5, 2016, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/05/5-facts-about-americas-political-independents/.

(58.) Tom W. Smith, Peter Marsden, Michael Hout, and Jibum Kim. General Social Surveys, 1972–2014 [machine-readable data file]/Principal Investigator, Tom W. Smith; Co-Principal Investigator, Peter V. Marsden; Co-Principal Investigator, Michael Hout; Sponsored by National Science Foundation. NORC ed. (Chicago: NORC at the University of Chicago) [producer and distributor].

(59.) Nic Newman with Richard Fletcher, Antonis Kalogeropoulos, David A.L. Levy, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2017, http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/.

(60.) Id. at 19.

(61.) Miller, Saunders, and Farhart, “Conspiracy Endorsement as Motivated Reasoning: The Moderating Roles of Political Knowledge and Trust.”; Adam J. Berinsky, “The Roots of False Beliefs: Political Rumors in America from 2010–2017” draft chapter.

(62.) Blumenthal v. Drudge and America Online, Inc., April 22 1998. https://epic.org/free_speech/blumenthal_v_drudge.html.

(63.) Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union, 521 U.S. 844, 870 (1997).

(64.) Yochai Benkler, “Free as the Air to Common Use: First Amendment Constraints on Enclosure of the Public Domain,” New York University Law Review 74, no. 2 (p.435) (May 1999): 354–446; Yochai Benkler, “From Consumers to Users: Shifting the Deeper Structures of Regulation Toward Sustainable Commons and User Access” Federal Communications Law Journal 52 (2000): 561–579.

(65.) Cass R. Sunstein, Republic.Com (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).

(66.) Albert-László Barabási and Réka Albert, “Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks,” Science 286, no. 5439 (October 15, 1999): 509–512, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5439.509.; Lada A. Adamic, Lada A., and Bernardo A. Huberman., “Power-Law Distribution of the World Wide Web.,” Science 287, no. 5461 (2000): 2115–2115.

(67.) Erzsébet Ravasz and Albert-László Barabási, “Hierarchical Organization in Complex Networks,” Physical Review E 67, no. 2 (February 14, 2003), https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.67.026112.; Matthew Scott Hindman, The Myth of Digital Democracy (Princeton, NJ; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2009).

(68.) Lada A. Adamic and Natalie Glance, “The Political Blogosphere and the 2004 U.S. Election: Divided They Blog,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Link Discovery, 2005, https://doi.org/10.1145/1134271.1134277.

(69.) Markus Prior, Post-Broadcast Democracy: How Media Choice Increases Inequality in Political Involvement and Polarizes Elections, Cambridge Studies in Public Opinion and Political Psychology (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

(70.) Hindman, The Myth of Digital Democracy.

(71.) Others who had looked at this question on a smaller scale or more based on experience were Bowers, C., & Stoller, M. (2005)., Emergence of the Progressive Blogosphere: A New Force in American Politics, New Politics Institute (2005). Available at: http://www.newpolitics.net/node/87?full_report=1; David Karpf, (2008b). “Understanding blogspace.,” Journal of Information Technology and Politics 5, (no. 4) (2008b): 369–385. M.R. Kerbel, M. R. (2009). Netroots: Online Progressives and the Transformation of American Politics. (Boulder, Colo.CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2009).

(72.) Aaron Shaw and Yochai Benkler, “A Tale of Two Blogospheres: Discursive Practices on the Left and Right,” American Behavioral Scientist 56, no. 4 (April 2012): 459–487, https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764211433793.

(73.) Micah L. Sifry, The Big Disconnect Why the Internet Hasn’t Transformed Politics (Yet) (New York: OR Books, 2014).

(74.) Zeynep Tufekci and& Christopher Wilson, “Social media and the decision to participate in political protest: Observations from Tahrir Square,” Journal of Communication 62, no. (2) (2012): 363–379 (2012).

(75.) Larry Diamond, “Liberation Technology,” Journal of Democracy 21 (July 2010): 69–83.

(76.) Philip N. Howard, The Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Information Technology and Political Islam, Oxford Studies in Digital Politics (Oxford; New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 2010).

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(77.) Sandra González-Bailón, Javier Borge-Holthoefer, and Yamir Moreno, “Broadcasters and Hidden Influentials in Online Protest Diffusion,” American Behavioral Scientist 57 (July 2013): 943–965.

(78.) Mayo Fuster Morell, “The Free Culture and 15M Movements in Spain: Composition, Social Networks and Synergies,” Social Movement Studies 11, no. 3–4 (August 1, 2012): 386–392, https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2012.710323.

(79.) Zeynep Tufekci, Twitter & Teargas (2016).

(80.) Nagla Rizk, Lina Attalah, and Nadine Weheba, The Networked Public Sphere and Civic Engagement in Post-2011 Egypt: A Local Perspective., http://www.arabnps.org/egypt/.

(81.) Escander Nagazi, Jazem Halioui, and Fares Mabrouk, An Accelerated Story of the Emergence and Transformation of the Networked Public Sphere: The Case of Tunisia, http://www.arabnps.org/tunisia/.

(82.) E. Bakshy, S. Messing, and L.A. Adamic, “Exposure to Ideologically Diverse News and Opinion on Facebook,” Science 348, no. 6239 (June 5, 2015): 1130–1132, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa1160.

(84.) John T. Jost et al., “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition.,” Psychological Bulletin 129, no. 3 (2003): 339–375, https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.3.339.

(85.) Ariel Malka, Yphtach Lelkes, and Christopher J. Soto, “Are Cultural and Economic Conservatism Positively Correlated? A Large-Scale Cross-National Test,” British Journal of Political Science, May 30, 2017, 1–25, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123417000072.; Ariel Malka, Yphtach Lelkes, and Nissan Holzer, “Rethinking the Rigidity of the Right Model,” inJarret T. Crawford and Lee J. Jussim, eds., The Politics of Social Psychology, Frontiers of Social Psychology (NewYork: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2018).

(86.) Stefano DellaVigna and Ethan Kaplan, “The Fox News Effect: Media Bias and Voting,” 122(3) QJE 122 no. 3 (August 2007): 1187–1234.

(87.) Gregory J. Martin and Ali Yurukoglu, Bias in Cable News: Persuasion and Polarization., NBER Working Paper, April 5, 2017.

(88.) Matthew Gentzkow and Jesse M. Shapiro, “What drives media slant? Evidence from US daily newspapers,” Econometrica, 2010, 78 no. (1), (2010): 35–71.

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(91.) “How the 2016 Vote Broke Down by Race, Gender, and Age—Decision Desk HQ,” accessed April 6, 2018, https://decisiondeskhq.com/data-dives/how-the-2016-vote-broke-down-by-race-gender-and-age/. (based on CCES Common Content 2016).

(92.) Elisa Shearer and Jeffrey Gottfried, “News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017,” Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project (blog), September 7, 2017, http://www.journalism.org/2017/09/07/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-2017/.

(93.) Alec Tyson and Shiva Maniam, “Behind Trump’s Victory: Divisions by Race, Gender, Education,” Pew Research Center (blog), November 9, 2016, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/09/behind-trumps-victory-divisions-by-race-gender-education/.

(94.) Levi Boxell, Matthew Gentzkow, and Jesse M. Shapiro, PNAS 114, no.(40) (October 3, 2017): 10612–10617 (Oct. 3, 2017), http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1706588114.

Chapter 12

(1.) Henry Farrell, “The Consequences of the Internet for Politics,” Annual Review of Political Science 15, no. 1 (June 15, 2012): 35–52, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-030810-110815.

(2.) Bruce A. Bimber, Information and American Democracy: Technology in the Evolution of Political Power, Communication, Society, and Politics (Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003); David Karpf, The MoveOn Effect: The Unexpected Transformation of American Political Advocacy, Oxford Studies in Digital Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

(3.) Eszter Hargittai, Jason Gallo, and Matthew Kane, “Cross-Ideological Discussions among Conservative and Liberal Bloggers,” Public Choice 134, no. 1–2 (November 20, 2007): 67–86, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-007-9201-x; Eric Lawrence, John Sides, and Henry Farrell, “Self-Segregation or Deliberation? Blog Readership, Participation, and Polarization in American Politics,” Perspectives on Politics 8, no. 01 (March 2010): 141, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592709992714; Matthew Gentzkow and Jesse M. Shapiro, “Ideological Segregation Online and Offline,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 126, no. 4 (2011): 1799–1839.

(4.) Henry Farrell and Daniel W. Drezner, “The Power and Politics of Blogs,” Public Choice 134, no. 1–2 (November 20, 2007): 15–30, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-007-9198-1; Kevin Wallsten, “Agenda Setting and the Blogosphere: An Analysis of the Relationship between Mainstream Media and Political Blogs: Agenda Setting and the Blogosphere,” Review of Policy Research 24, no. 6 (December 17, 2007): 567–587, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.2007.00300.x.

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(5.) Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006).

(6.) Id. Benkler; Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations: [With an Updated Epilogue], Nachdr. (New York, NY; Toronto; London: Penguin Books, 2009); Bruce Bimber, Andrew Flanagin, and Cynthia Stohl, “Collective Action in Organizations: Interaction and Engagement in an Era of Technological Change: Cambridge University Press, New York, 2012, 224 Pp., Appendices, References, Index, $29.99 (Paperback),” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 25, no. 3 (June 2014): 847–848, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-013-9413-2; W. Lance Bennett and Alexandra Segerberg, “THE LOGIC OF CONNECTIVE ACTION: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics,” Information, Communication & Society 15, no. 5 (June 2012): 739–768, https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.670661.

(7.) Zeynep Tufekci, Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest (New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 2017).

(8.) Micah L Sifry, The Big Disconnect Why the Internet Hasn’t Transformed Politics (Yet) (New York: OR Books, 2014); “The Decembrist: Dean’s Penguin, or Technology and the Nature of Political Interaction,” accessed January 29, 2018, http://markschmitt.typepad.com/decembrist/2003/12/deans_pengun_or.html.

(9.) Micah L. Sifry, “Obama’s Lost Army,” The New Republic, February 9, 2017, https://newrepublic.com/article/140245/obamas-lost-army-inside-fall-grassroots-machine.

(10.) Alexis C. Madrigal, “When the Nerds Go Marching In,” The Atlantic, November 16, 2012, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/11/when-the-nerds-go-marching-in/265325/.

(11.) Adam D.I. Kramer, Jamie E. Guillory, and Jeffrey T. Hancock, “Experimental Evidence of Massive-Scale Emotional Contagion through Social Networks,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, no. 24 (June 17, 2014): 8788–8790, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1320040111.

(12.) Zeynep Tufekci, “Engineering the Public: Big Data, Surveillance and Computational Politics,” First Monday 19, no. 7 (July 7, 2014), https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i7.4901.

(13.) Shoshana Zuboff, “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology 30, no. 1 (March 2015): 75–89, https://doi.org/10.1057/jit.2015.5.

(14.) For a brief overview, see Alice Marwick and Rebecca Lewis, “Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online” (Data & Society, May 15, 2017), 7–9, https://datasociety.net/pubs/oh/DataAndSociety_MediaManipulationAndDisinformationOnline.pdf. For the leading academic treatments, see Andrea Braithwaite, “It’s About Ethics in Games Journalism? Gamergaters and Geek Masculinity,” Social (p.439) Media + Society 2, no. 4 (November 2016): 205630511667248, https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305116672484.

(15.) Adrienne Massanari, “#Gamergate and The Fappening: How Reddit’s Algorithm, Governance, and Culture Support Toxic Technocultures,” New Media & Society 19, no. 3 (March 1, 2017): 329–346, https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444815608807.

(16.) Shira Chess and Adrienne Shaw, “A Conspiracy of Fishes, or, How We Learned to Stop Worrying About #GamerGate and Embrace Hegemonic Masculinity,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 59, no. 1 (March 11, 2015): 208–220, https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2014.999917.

(17.) The Free Republic Forum was one of the first such examples on the right. See Yochai Benkler, “Free As the Air to Common Use: First Amendment Constraints on Enclosure of the Public Domain,” New York University Law Review 74, no. 2 (May 1999): 354–446. The Dan Rather takedown was every bit as prominent as Trent Lott’s demise in the early discussions of online mobilization. See Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006), chap. 7.

(19.) Yochai Benkler, “CORRESPONDENCE: A New Era of Corruption?,” The New Republic, March 4, 2009, https://newrepublic.com/article/61997/correspondence-new-era-corruption.

Chapter 13

(1.) Nolan McCarty, “Polarization Is Real (and Asymmetric),” The Monkey Cage (blog), May 15, 2012, http://themonkeycage.org/2012/05/polarization-is-real-and-asymmetric/; David Karol, “Defining Dissidence Down,” The Monkey Cage (blog), May 9, 2012, http://themonkeycage.org/2012/05/defining-dissidence-down/.

(2.) Matthew Sheffield, “The Conservative Media Echo Chamber Is Making the Right Intellectually Deaf,” National Review, August 4, 2016, https://www.nationalreview.com/2016/08/fox-news-conservative-media-echo-chamber-hurts-conservatives/; David French, “The Drive to Become ‘Fox News Famous’ Hurts the Right,” National Review, August 30, 2016, https://www.nationalreview.com/2016/08/fox-news-hurts-conservative-movement/.

(3.) Julian Sanchez, “Frum, Cocktail Parties, and the Threat of Doubt,” Julian Sanchez (blog), March 26, 2010, http://www.juliansanchez.com/2010/03/26/frum-cocktail-parties-and-the-threat-of-doubt/.

(4.) Maxwell T. Boykoff and Jules M. Boykoff, “Balance as Bias: Global Warming and the US Prestige Press,” Global Environmental Change 14, no. 2 (July 2004): 125–136, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2003.10.001.

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(5.) Derek J. Koehler, “Can Journalistic ‘False Balance’ Distort Public Perception of Consensus in Expert Opinion?,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 22, no. 1 (March 2016): 24–38, https://doi.org/10.1037/xap0000073.

(6.) Bill Chappell, “‘Washington Post’ Says It Foiled Apparent Sting By James O’Keefe’s Activist Group,” NPR, November 28, 2017, https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/11/28/566911256/washington-post-says-it-foiled-apparent-sting-by-james-okeefes-activist-group.

(7.) Danah Boyd, “You Think You Want Media Literacy . . . Do You?,” Data & Society: Points, March 9, 2018, https://points.datasociety.net/you-think-you-want-media-literacy-do-you-7cad6af18ec2.

(8.) Nic Dias and Claire Wardle, “10 Questions to Ask before Covering Misinformation,” First Draft, September 29, 2017, https://firstdraftnews.org/10-questions-newsrooms/.

(9.) Philip Oltermann and Pádraig Collins, “Two Members of Germany’s Far-Right Party Investigated by State Prosecutor,” The Guardian, January 2, 2018, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/02/german-far-right-mp-investigated-anti-muslim-social-media-posts.

(10.) Zeran v. America Online, Inc., 129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 1997); Jones v. Dirty World Entertainment Recordings LLC, 755 F.3d 398 (6th Cir. 2014).

(11.) Kenneth Olmstead et al., “How Americans Get TV News at Home” (Pew Research Center, October 11, 2013), http://www.journalism.org/2013/10/11/how-americans-get-tv-news-at-home/.

(12.) Amy Mitchell et al., “The Modern News Consumer—3. Loyalty and Source Attention” (Pew Research Center, July 7, 2016), http://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/loyalty-and-source-attention/.

(13.) Id.

(14.) Matthew S. Petersen, “FEC Advisory Opinion 2010-19: Concurring Statement of Chairman Matthew S. Petersen,” Perma.cc, December 30, 2010, https://perma.cc/WK2L-CHZ5.

(15.) Marc Eric Elias, “Facebook Request for Advisory Opinion,” Perma.cc, April 26, 2011, https://perma.cc/6543-DUD6.

(16.) Joshua Green and Sasha Issenberg, “Inside the Trump Bunker, With Days to Go,” Bloomberg, October 27, 2016, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-10-27/inside-the-trump-bunker-with-12-days-to-go.

(17.) Julia Angwin, Madeleine Varner, and Ariana Tobin, “Facebook Enabled Advertisers to Reach ‘Jew Haters,’ ” ProPublica, September 14, 2017, sec. Machine Bias, https://www.propublica.org/article/facebook-enabled-advertisers-to-reach-jew-haters.

(18.) David M.J. Lazer et al., “The Science of Fake News,” Science 359, no. 6380 (March 9, 2018): 1094–1096, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao2998.

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(19.) Hans Martens, “Evaluating Media Literacy Education: Concepts, Theories and Future Directions,” Journal of Media Literacy Education 2 (January 2010): 1–22.

(20.) danah boyd, “You Think You Want Media Literacy . . . Do You?,” March 9, 2018, https://points.datasociety.net/you-think-you-want-media-literacy-do-you-7cad6af18ec2.

Chapter 14

(1.) Yochai Benkler, “Network Pragmatism: Towards an Open Social Economy,” in Towards a Participatory Society: New Roads to Social and Cultural Integration, ed. M. Archer, P. Donati, and M. Sánchez Sorondo, Proceedings of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences, Acta 21, Vatican City, 2017.