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Network PropagandaManipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics$

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190923624

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190923624.001.0001

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(p.442) Index

(p.442) Index

Source:
Network Propaganda
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.443) Note: Page numbers followed by the italicized letters f, n, or t indicate material found in figures, notes or tables.

ABC News
Clinton Foundation stories on, 199
cross media inlinks to, 63
Facebook shares of, 54t, 70f
FBI coverage by, 181
as media source, 50t
in open web link economy, 49
popularity of, 283t
Ross’s reporting on, 216
Trump’s Fake News award to, 183
trust in, 325f
Twitter shares of, 52t, 69f
on voter fraud, 260
Abedin, Huma, 95, 96, 203, 211212, 230
Abramovic, Marina, 227, 231
Abramowitz, Alan, 301303, 308
Abrams, Samuel J., 302
Achen, Christopher, 304
Acorn, 261
activists
agenda setting and, 213
on the alt-right, 223, 347
campaign role of, 12, 331
in centralized/decentralized organizations, 343344
in deep state frame, 151
disinformation and, 367
document dumps and, 358
focus/ideological positions of, 76, 78
internet effect and, 383
on-line media use by, 73
as percent of electorate, 302
polarization of, 303, 309
Russian interference and, 102
social media influence and, 240241
actors, in information disorder. See also bots; Cambridge Analytica
alt-right trolls, 1113, 21f, 22f, 225, 232
Facebook News Feed algorithm, 1011, 280, 287
“fake news” entrepreneurs, 9, 11, 41, 71, 351
mainstream media, 1618, 148f, 149f, 189196, 214220, 317, 318
mapping of, 2023
online echo chambers and, 1011
political clickbait fabricators, 9, 15, 23, 33, 41, 92, 269, 279288
right-wing media ecosystem, 1316
Russian hackers, 910, 21f, 22f, 102, 159, 192
sockpuppets, 910, 2122f, 102, 240243, 254, 259, 329, 346, 368369, 372374
white supremacists, 1113, 132
Adamic, Lada, 330
Addicting Info, 54, 54t, 70, 70f, 86, 87f, 282t, 283, 285t, 287
Adl-Tabatabai, Sean, 244, 253
(p.444) Adweek, 311
affective polarization, 306307
African American voters, 242, 260, 270271, 370
agenda setting, 17, 98, 101102, 106114, 258259, 291, 342, 373, 383
Agnew, Spiro, 318
Ailes, Roger, 321323
Alcott, Hunt, 71, 286
All Channel Receiver Act, 319321
Allcott, Hunt, 286
Alternative for Germany (AfD) party, 363, 366
alt-right trolls
definition of, 1113
in on-line echo chambers, 22f
in media echo system, 21f, 225, 232
Amazon, 50t
America First Committee, 182, 316
“America First” message, 107
The American Prospect, 316
The American Voter (study of voter behavior), 304
AM radio, 320321, 382
Amusing Ourselves to Death (Postman), 28
Andris, Clio, 296
anti-semitism, 103, 125, 128, 130131
Arab Spring, 147, 149, 332333, 343
Armstrong, Edwin, 321
Army Field Manual of Psychological Operations, 26
Assange, Julian, 140, 147, 159, 161, 163, 248, 266
Associated Press (AP), 176, 207, 213214, 356
Asymmetric Politics: Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats (Grossman and Hopkins), 300
asymmetry/asymmetric polarization. See also network maps; talk radio; trust/distrust in media/journalism
cable deregulation and, 319, 348, 382
cross media inlinks, 63f
Facebook-based, 5354
internet/technology and, 329337
open web view of, 4851
origins of, 313318
partisan distribution, 55f, 56f, 63f
patterns of authority/attention in, 5456
political impact assessment of, 337339
in post-election period, 6065
presentation of data, 4648
social media patterns in, 6573
top 50 sites of left/right, 64t
Twitter-based, 5153
The Atlantic, 50t, 69, 70f, 282t, 341
attention backbone, 33
Baer, Steve, 92
Bagdikian, Ben, 28, 318
Baier, Bret, 94, 96, 97, 215, 311
Baker, C. Edwin, 28, 314, 318
Band, Doug, 203, 211212
Bannon, Steve, 40, 54, 97, 131132, 167, 196197, 214, 262, 275, 355
Barnhill, Anne, 30
Bartels, Larry, 304
BBC, 15, 50t, 69f, 70f, 73, 114t, 184, 227, 244, 282t, 324, 325f, 328
Beck, Glenn, 15, 83, 98, 323324, 325f, 328, 367
Beeley, Vanessa, 244
behavioral marketing, 2122t, 41, 223, 269, 272274, 276, 278279, 361, 385, 426n19
Berinsky, Adam, 312
Bernays, Edward, 26, 27
BernieSanders.com, 50t, 282t
Berry, Jeffrey, 311312
Bershidsky, Leonid, 249
bias confirmation
liberal media and, 348349
in on-line media, 334336
in media ecosystem, 74, 328, 355
media strategy of, 8485
polarization and, 290
professional journalistic organizations and, 359
in propaganda feedback loop, 8082
in realty-check dynamic, 7879
in Trump rape stories, 92
Bias of Communications (Innis), 281
(p.445) Big League Politics, 247
Binney, William, 248, 250253, 250f
Bipartisan Report, 54, 54t, 70, 70f, 86, 87f, 282, 282t, 283, 285t, 287
“black box” algorithms, 1011
Blackburn, Marsha, 138, 201202
Black Lives Matter, 227, 343
black propaganda. See propaganda
Blacktivist, 242, 262
blogosphere, 237, 311, 312, 330333
Bloom, Lisa, 91
Bloomberg, 152153, 176, 208f, 218, 249, 254, 262, 270
Botometer, 264
bots
definition of, 910
difficulty spotting/finding, 43, 264265
in echo chamber creation, 4
in epistemic crisis, 20, 2122t
influence of, 5253, 240, 372, 375, 379
Russian interference and, 236237, 242243, 254, 259, 267268
Boxell, Levi, 339
Boxer, Barbara, 211212
Boykoff, Jules, 356
Boykoff, Maxwell, 356
Brazile, Donna, 194195, 195f
Breitbart
on California motor voter law, 35
Clinton Cash coverage, 167, 171, 197, 199, 201202, 255
on Clinton Foundation, 132133, 214
on Clinton pedophilia frame, 9697
“deep state” coverage, 151153, 155, 158, 176, 245
in disinformation ecosystem, 348, 355
DNC hack coverage, 250
Facebook shares of, 54t, 68f, 115117t, 207
founding of, 81, 331
Fox News comparison, 61, 63, 6667, 67t, 69, 71, 93
“globalist” term usage on, 129130
on immigration, 4, 18, 59, 101, 103, 108109, 108109f, 111112, 111f, 114, 124129, 132, 263, 268
influence/prominence of, 56, 5760
inlinks to, 64t
as media source, 50t, 5154, 52t
monthly visits to, 158f
most linked-to stories on, 121123t
in open web link economy, 49
in positive feedback loops, 220, 224
radicalization and, 14
Trump election and, 7
Twitter-shared stories, 47, 68f, 113t, 118120t
on voter fraud, 260
Brexit, 4, 28. See also European Union
Breyer, Jessica, 12
Broderick, Juanita, 95
Brown, Jerry, 35, 35f, 115t
Buchanan, Pat, 4, 107
“bullshit,” definition of, 24, 3233
Burkman, Jack, 163164
Bush, George H. W., 7, 106
Bush, George W., 7, 14, 107, 181, 312, 325326, 337
Bush, Jeb, 3, 14, 57, 268, 292, 376
Business Insider, 50t, 69f, 114t, 283t
Business Week, 49, 50t, 52t, 283t
Butkowsky, Ed, 163
BuzzFeed
“Ending the Fed” site and, 232
“fake news” term/stories in, 3, 9, 269
influence of, 331
journalistic reporting on, 385
media inlinks for, 50t
on Pizzagate story, 398n30
popularity rank of, 282t
Scaramucci story and, 218
social media shares, 52t, 69f, 140
Steele Dossier publication, 147, 153
cable deregulation, 319, 348, 382
cable news, 19, 45, 292, 311
Cambridge Analytica, 11, 41, 43, 71, 223, 269272, 275279, 290, 341, 351, 361, 368, 375, 385
Campbell, Duncan, 252
Cardin, Ben, 219
Carlson, Tucker, 145, 148, 154, 156, 179, 250, 250f, 311
(p.446) Carter, Adam, 246249, 251
Casey, Doug (Tyler Durden), 150151
Cato Institute, 354
Cavuto, Neil, 179
CBS News, 50t, 69f, 282t, 325f
Center for Immigration Studies (CIS), 108f, 109, 109t, 111112, 348
Cernovich, Mike, 225227, 229233
Chagoury, Gilbert, 203
Chess, Shira, 346
Chomsky, Noam, 2728, 318
Christian broadcasting, 319320, 322
Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), 320, 322
Christians. See evangelical Christians
Circa News, 173, 176, 180
Civil Rights Act (1964), 297
Clark, Justin, 231
Clear Channel Communications, 322323
clickbait fabricators
as commercial bullshit, 33
definition of, 9
Facebook algorithms and, 279288
“fake news” focus of, 269
partisanship and, 15, 23
political purpose and, 92
skepticism about, 41
Clinton, Bill
Clinton Foundation and, 135136, 167, 174, 177, 180, 199, 202205, 207, 211, 213
pedophilia/sex scandal frame and, 39, 85, 9397, 229230
Clinton, Hillary. See also hillaryclinton.com
automated/fake account messages and, 10
campaign funding and, 3
corruption frame, 103104
email investigation, 95, 96, 102
email-related stories, 189196, 190f, 193194f
immigration frame, 119t, 122t
media coverage of, 17, 40, 262
media ecosystem and, 99
Muslims/Islamic terrorism frame, 115t, 116t, 117t, 118t
open web mentions of, 17f
pedophilia libel and, 3, 39, 82, 8591, 9293, 9697, 99
Republican Party radicalization and, 7
in right-wing media ecosystem, 3637
Trump’s conspiracy theories about, 201
2016 presidential election, 48
voters’ news sources, 72
Clinton Cash, 115t, 143, 167168, 170171, 185, 197, 199201, 203, 204206f, 255
Clinton Foundation
EPA/Mosaic Fertilizer story, 137139
Islamophobia and, 132137
news segment mentions on, 209210f
online linking practices for stories on, 202f, 211f
open web mentions of, 204207f
Podesta email dump and, 139144
reports of investigations on, 201202
right-wing media coverage of, 197, 198f
social media shares about, 211212, 212f
television coverage of, 203, 205, 207
Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI), 135136
Cloudflare, 12
CNN
attention/social attention to, 67
Blacktivist coverage, 242
cable deregulation and, 319
Clinton Foundation coverage by, 205, 207, 208f
“deep state” stories on, 154f
on DNC emails, 256
Donna Brazile and, 195
error detection/correction and, 216219
Facebook shares of, 54t, 68f
Fake News Awards and, 183
false equivalency and, 16
Fox News comparison, 8385, 311, 323, 335
ideological positions and, 325f
immigration mentions on, 108f, 109f, 127f
Limbaugh on, 183
(p.447)
as media source, 50t, 72, 108, 110t, 324
in open web link economy, 4850, 52
partisan slant of, 338
PolitiFact scoring for, 84f, 85f
popularity of, 282t
Seth Rich conspiracy theory and, 163, 165
Twitter shares of, 52t, 68f
Uranium One conspiracy theory/story on, 186f
Cohn, Gary D., 131
Colbert, Stephen, 323
Cold War, 243, 316
Coleman, Gabriella, 12
Comet Pizza, 3, 231. See also “Pizzagate” conspiracy
Comey, James, 39, 95, 96, 154f, 161162, 175176, 179, 181, 191192, 193f, 217, 255, 270, 406n51
Committee on Political Information, 27
Committee on Public Information, 25
Communications Decency Act (CDA), 364365
conservative media
audience for, 328
Breitbart/Fox News influence, 5760
confrontations in, 312
epistemic closure and, 354
magazines/publications in, 316
vs. mainstream media, 317
on PolitiFact, 82
reach of, 318
Uranium One conspiracy theory in, 170
conspiracy theories. See also deep state; “Pizzagate” conspiracy; Seth Rich conspiracy theory; Uranium One conspiracy theory/story
on left/right news site comparison, 15
Trump’s embrace of, 18
Converse, Philip, 304
Coughlin, Charles (Father Coughlin), 314, 316, 382
Council of Europe, 23
Craddick, William, 248
Creel Committee, 25
“Crossfire” (CNN), 107
CrowdStrike, 239, 248
Cruz, Ted, 18, 108f, 353
cyborgs, 240, 243. See also bots
Dacey, Amy, 256
Daily Beast, 50t, 52t, 64t, 69f, 70f, 9192, 151, 242, 263, 282
Daily Caller
on Clinton Foundation, 133139, 135f, 197, 201202, 214
on Clinton pedophilia frame, 9395
on deep state frame, 176
Facebook shares of, 54t, 70, 70f
immigration stories in, 108, 108f, 114t, 127, 127f
inlinks to, 64t
on ISIS funding email, 141
as media source, 50t, 52
media source sharing and, 47
in open web link economy, 49
popularity of, 284t
radicalization and, 14
in right-wing media ecosystem, 82, 334
Twitter shares of, 52t, 69f
Daily Kos, 52, 52t, 54, 54t, 6970f, 74, 282t, 331, 347
Daily Mail, 49, 50t, 64t, 69f, 70f, 91, 93, 95, 114t, 284t
Daily Stormer, 12, 124, 127f, 230, 248, 360, 365
dark ads, 223, 274, 290. See also political advertising
Data & Society Institute, 23, 359
DCLeaks, 239, 242, 246, 255
Dean, Howard, 331, 343344
deep state
in center right media, 353
conspiracy theories about, 195
Dobbs on, 215
in Fox News’ framing, 39, 103, 147158, 226
Gateway Pundit on, 176
Hannity on, 163, 292
media inlinks to, 156f
news segment mentions on, 154f
Russian interference and, 244246, 248, 253, 268
(p.448)
term usage, 147
in top media, 149f
Trump’s references to, 18, 145
in 2016 election, 103
defamation laws, 376
Deibert, Ronald, 238
DeLay, Tom, 322
DellaVigna, Stefano, 337339
democracy
echo chambers and, 5
folk theory of, 304
survival of, 289293
threats to, 4
“Democracy Now!” 155, 323
Democratic National Committee. See DNC email hacking/leaking
Democratic National Convention, 132, 163, 190, 196, 199, 201, 214, 239, 255
Dent, Charlie, 295
Department of Justice (DOJ), 138, 154f, 174175, 181, 184185, 193f
Derakhshan, Hossein, 23
Deutsch, Donny, 94
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 364
Dimitriev, Kirill, 218
Disconnect (Fiorina and Abrams), 302
disinformation. See also “Fake News” entrepreneurs
activists and, 367
definition of, 24, 32
hate speech and, 366
prevalence of, 71
in right-wing media ecosystem, 13
Russian campaigns of, 3
susceptibility/vulnerability to, 8, 268, 329, 347348
through social media, 6
trust/distrust in media/journalism and, 387
Disobedient Media, 248, 251
disorientation
definition of, 24
propaganda and, 3637
distraction, propaganda and, 35
DNC email hacking/leaking, 910, 146, 159, 239240, 242, 245250, 255257, 256257t
Dobbs, Lou, 130, 130f, 153154, 168, 178, 178f, 179, 185, 214
DonaldJTrump.com, 50t, 64t, 110t, 284t
doxxing, 239, 245, 255, 346
Drake, Thomas, 252
Drudge Report, 81, 223, 225, 226, 231, 233, 245, 329330
Durden, Tyler (Doug Casey), 150151
DW-NOMINATE, 297299
echo chambers
creation of, 4
definition of, 1011
in pluralist democracies, 5
EcoWatch, 219
Einstein, Katherine Levine, 34
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 148
Ellul, Jacques, 27, 28
emails
Clinton investigation and, 95, 96, 102
Clinton related stories for, 189196, 190f, 193194f
Clinton Foundation and Podesta dump of, 139144
DNC hacking/leaking of, 910, 146, 159, 239240, 242, 245250, 255257, 256257t
Sean Hannity on ISIS funding and, 143144
Clinton coverage in mainstream media of, 189196
Podesta dump of, 136, 163, 192, 194195, 240, 245, 255, 265, 358
Washington Post stories about, 144, 195, 213214, 216217, 256
The Emerging Republican Majority (Phillips), 297
Ending the Fed, 70, 86, 87f, 140144, 231232, 282, 284, 284t, 285t, 288
“Engineering of Consent,” 25
“epistemic closure,” 354
(p.449) epistemic crisis
causes of/explanations for, 11, 20, 351
Clinton pedophilia libel and, 9697
in democratic societies, 348
Facebook and, 269
fact checking and, 378
left/center-left in, 71
open web and, 51
partisan shape of, 16, 2021
regulation/self-regulation and, 386
social-identity theory and, 166
technology and, 2223, 42, 138, 381
threat models of, 21f, 22f
Epstein, Jeffrey, 91, 9296, 229230
Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip, 134
error detection/correction (in journalism), 214220
Etling, Bruce, 124, 237
European Union, 4, 235, 238239, 253, 289
evangelical Christians, 7, 297, 299, 309, 319, 320, 370
Evening Standard, 244
Facebook. See also Cambridge Analytica
automated/fake accounts and, 10
Clinton pedophilia frame and, 91, 93, 99
discrimination claims against, 288
engagement from Trump supporters, 9
engagement with news stories on, 3
in first year of Trump presidency, 6572
immigration discussions/stories on, 113114t, 115117t
media sharing on, 54t, 68f
media sources on, 285t
microtargeted behavioral marketing on, 2122t, 41, 223, 269, 272274, 276, 278279, 361, 385, 426n19
partisan distribution on, 67f
Russian advertising on, 10
second-tier media source shares on, 70f
Seth Rich story shares on, 165f
Trump digital campaign and, 270274
in 2016 election period, 5354
Facebook News Feed algorithm, 1011, 280, 287. See also clickbait fabricators
fact checking, institutionalization of, 376378
fact checking sites, 8285
FactCheck.org, 163, 376
Fairbanks, Cassandra, 226227, 229233, 245248
Fair Deal/New Deal, 297, 298, 314316
fairness doctrine (FCC), 314, 317318, 321, 348, 382
“fake news” as term, 3
“Fake News Awards,” 4, 15, 183f, 215, 217218, 220
“fake news” entrepreneurs
definition of, 9
disinformation and, 71
epistemic crisis and, 11, 351
Facebook-based culprits and, 41
false statements
by political alignment, 85f
prevalence of, 8285
Falwell, Jerry, 297. See also evangelical Christians
Faulkner, Harris, 179
fear/fear mongering
appeals to, 31
Cambridge Analytica and, 276
by campaigns, 274
of immigrants, 132
of internet effects, 383, 386
of liability, 364
mobilization of, 132
of Muslims/Islamist terrorism, 18, 101, 114, 117, 123
paranoid reasoning and, 138139
of retaliation, 242
social divides and, 273
stories to elicit, 4
white supremacists and, 12
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 314, 317322
“50 Cent Army,” 35, 242
The Filter Bubble (Pariser), 290
filter bubbles, 1011, 41, 289. See also echo chambers
(p.450) Fiorina, Morris, 302
First Amendment
FCC and, 321
interpretations of, 366
protections/violations, 363364
Supreme Court and, 313
white supremacists and, 12
FiveThirtyEight, 50t
Flynn, D. J., 35
Flynn, Michael, 39, 96, 97, 151153, 154f, 155, 161, 166, 216, 246, 406n51
FM radio, 321, 348, 381
Focus on the Family, 322
“folk theory” of democracy, 304
Forbes, 50t, 74, 114t, 283t
Forensicator, 155, 245, 247249, 251252, 251f, 354
Fowler, Mark, 321
Fox and Friends, 19, 162163, 184, 184f, 215, 247
Fox News. See also Uranium One conspiracy theory/story
amplification of radical sites by, 14
attacks on party of Reagan by, 7
bias/truth and, 15
Breitbart comparison, 67t
on Clinton pedophilia frame, 9297
deep state frame and, 147158
false equivalency and, 16
immigration coverage, 127
vs. Internet, 337339
monthly visits to, 158f
as president’s propaganda network, 145146
on Seth Rich conspiracy theory, 159166
“Fox News Effect,” 337
frames/framing
of immigration issue/debate, 114, 124
of issues, 101102
use of social media to introduce, 258262
Frank, LoBiondo, 295
Frankfurt, Harry, 32
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 137, 192, 203, 207, 213, 225, 255, 358
Free Republic, 329, 330331
Freitas, Nathan, 252
French, David, 354
Gamergate controversy, 12, 346
Gateway Pundit
in conservative feedback cycle, 268
DNC leaks and, 257
emotionally evocative language in, 31
Facebook and, 54t, 70, 165, 284
false equivalency and, 16
immigration headlines of, 122123
manipulation and, 31
monthly visits to, 158f
radicalization and, 14
Russiagate and, 248
Seth Rich conspiracy theory and, 160161, 247
spirit cooking story and, 231
Twitter and, 52, 69f, 7071, 288
Uranium One story and, 176
YouTube and, 155
Gawker, 9192, 93, 255, 376
General Social Survey, 318, 326, 327f
Gentzkow, Matthew, 71, 286, 338339
Germany
content removal in, 365366
NetzDG law, 1213, 21, 362363
public media in, 2122, 267
Ghosh, Dipayan, 273, 274
Gingrich, Newt, 94, 95, 97, 163, 167, 168, 179, 185, 291, 322, 326
Glance, Nancy, 330
“globalist” term usage, 128131, 129130f
GoDaddy, 12
González-Bailón, Sandra, 332333
Goodman, Amy, 155
Google/Google searches, 12, 154f
Gorka, Sebastian, 143, 167, 179, 185
government, role of, 362365
Government Accountability Initiative (GAI), 167, 197, 348, 355
Graepel, Thore, 275
Graham, Franklin, 7. See also evangelical Christians
gray propaganda. See propaganda
(p.451) Green, Joshua, 270271
Greenwald, Glenn, 147148, 152, 154f, 155, 236, 245, 252
Grossman, Matthew, 300
groupthink, 238, 252
Guardian, 50t, 52t, 54t, 67, 68f, 69f, 70, 9192, 109f, 113t, 127f, 199, 260, 282t, 401n29, 425n101
Guardian Project, 252
Guccifer 2.0, 155, 159160, 227, 245247, 249, 251, 251f, 253, 255
Guess, Andrew, 286287
Gulen, Fethullah, 134
Hacker, Jacob, 300
Hamilton 68 project, 253, 267
Hannity, Sean
Breitbart and, 115t, 123t
“deep state” frame and, 150, 153154, 292
Drudge Report and, 225226
false statement ratio of, 83, 311
on ISIS funding email, 143144
on journalism, 145
misdirection of, 180182
propaganda feedback loop and, 9495
talk radio and, 323
trust patterns and, 73, 324, 325f
Uranium One story and, 167, 177179, 185
on Wikileaks, 162164
hate speech
in Europe, 363
First Amendment and, 364
as intentional political disinformation, 366
NetzDG Law and, 13, 21, 362
Hemmer, Nicole, 317
Herman, Edward, 2728, 318
Hewitt, Hugh, 94
The Hill, 49, 50t, 52, 52t, 54t, 63, 6667, 68f, 91, 109f, 110t, 114t, 127f, 166, 170, 171, 173177, 180181, 185, 197, 283t, 354
hillaryclinton.com, 50t, 64t, 70f, 282t
Hindman, Matthew, 330
Hoaxy, 264
Hochschild, Jennifer, 34
Hofstadter, Richard, 136
Hollywood Reporter, 253
Honest Ads Act, 368371, 373, 375
Hopkins, David, 300
House Intelligence Committee, 154f, 231, 235, 241, 246, 274, 292
Huffington Post, 14, 4950, 50t, 52, 52t, 54, 54t, 64t, 67, 71, 82, 86, 91, 92, 110t, 114t, 195, 282t, 331, 334
Human Events (magazine), 182, 316, 317
Hutchins Commission, 314315
identity confirmation, 7779, 79f, 8081, 328, 335, 348, 352
IJR (right-wing site), 96
immigration
agenda setting on, 106114
Breitbart’s framing/stories on, 4, 59, 108, 121123t
Facebook-shared stories, 115117t
fear of Muslims/Islamic terrorism, 114, 117, 123125, 127
link-based map of stories on, 111, 111112f
media outlet mentions of, 108f, 109f
“Muslim ban” and, 105106
Republican Party and, 106107
sites discussing, 109110t, 110f, 113114t, 113f
Twitter-shared stories on, 118120t
white nationalist stories, 126127f
information, sources of political, 45
Infowars, 14, 16, 32, 69f, 7071, 114t, 141142, 143f, 158f, 245, 253, 263, 268, 284, 284t, 288, 334335, 366367
Ingraham, Laura, 226, 311, 384
Innis, Harold, 281
Institute for Propaganda Analysis, 26
The Intercept, 147, 152, 155, 251, 252, 256, 283t
Internet
as data-driven control platform, 344345
(p.452)
democracy’s survival and, 289293
as democratizing technology, 8, 318, 329337, 341, 342, 345346, 349, 369
vs. Fox News, 337339
leaderless/decentralized movements and, 343
repressive mobs and, 346347
structured political organizations and, 343345
susceptibility to disinformation/propaganda, 347348
Internet Archive, 73, 141, 205, 219, 401n25, 412n36
Internet Freedom Agenda, 332
Internet Research Agency (IRA), 237, 240243, 262
interventions/solutions
defamation law and, 376
disclosure/accountability and, 367368
Honest Ads Act, 367371, 373, 375
institutionalization of fact checking, 376378
media literacy education, 378
paid social promotion and, 372375
platform regulation, 360362
professional journalism and, 355359
public health approach, 375
public machine-readable open database, 371372
reconstructing center-right media, 353355
role of government, 362365
self-regulation, 365367
Islamophobia, Clinton Foundation and, 132137
Issenberg, Sasha, 270271
Jack, Caroline, 23
Jackson, Lisa, 137138
Jacor Communications, 322323
Jezebel, 9192
Johnson, Lyndon, 297, 316
Jones, Alex, 32, 128, 152, 176, 232233, 253, 263, 366, 376
Jost, John, 335
journalism. See also trust/distrust in media/journalism
disinformation and, 387
error detection/correction in, 214220
as institutionalized profession, 56
objective attributes of, 6
professional journalistic organizations, 359
in propaganda-rich ecosystem, 355359
Jowett, Gareth, 28
Judge Jeannine, 168, 178
Judicial Watch, 70f, 114t, 152, 178f, 192, 199, 203, 205, 207, 213214, 255, 348, 358
Kalmoe, Nathan, 304
Kaplan, Ethan, 337338
Kasich, John, 353
Khan, Khizr, 115116t, 143, 197
Kim, Young Mie, 241, 265, 273
Kinder, Donald, 304, 307
King, Gary, 35
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 31, 217
Klobuchar, Amy, 368
Koch brothers, 272
Kogan, Alexander, 275
Kosinski, Michal, 275276
Kreiss, Daniel, 272
Krugman, Paul, 217
Kucinich, Dennis, 153
Kushner, Jared, 131, 216
Lake, Eli, 152153
Lane, Rowan Brewer, 9394
Laswell, Harold, 24, 26
LawNewz, 92
Lawrence, Patrick, 249, 251
Leave campaign (Brexit), 4, 289, 341. See also European Union
Levine, Mark, 312
Lewandowski, Corey, 271
Lewis, Rebecca, 12, 346
lies on TV, prevalence of, 8285
LifeZette, 226
Limbaugh, Rush
bias/truth and, 15
Congress and, 322
(p.453)
“deep state” frame and, 147, 153
false statement ratio of, 83
“four corners of deceit” and, 37, 183
in political psychology, 335
propaganda feedback loop and, 95, 97
right-wing media development and, 81, 182
talk radio and, 321
on Trump’s voter fraud claim, 261
trust patterns and, 73, 324, 325f, 327
on Uranium One story, 176
Lippmann, Walter, 25, 2627
LiveJournal, 237
Lofgren, Mike, 150
“Lolita Express,” 85, 9297, 137, 214215, 220, 230231, 255
Loomis, Ed, 248
Los Angeles Times, 50t, 114t, 329, 356
Lubow, Norm, 92
Lucas, Shawn, 247
Luce, Henry, 314
Lugar, Richard, 353
MacArthur, Douglas, 151
Maddow, Rachel, 83, 311
Madrigal, Alexis, 345
mainstream media. See also Clinton Foundation
balance/scoop culture of, 189
circumvention of, 346
Clinton email coverage in, 189196
Clinton Foundation coverage by, 133, 207, 214
vs. conservative media, 317
“deep state” frame and, 148f, 149f
definition of, 1618
error detection/correction, 214220
“fake news” and, 217
feedback loops and, 336
Hannity on, 180, 182
in information disorder, 1618
internet democratization and, 341342
in media ecosystem, 331
national security establishment and, 318
online presence of, 334
PolitiFact scoring for, 85, 85f
right-wing criticism of, 317318, 322
role/influence of, 355356, 359
sustained attacks on, 358
Trump campaign coverage by, 273
truth-seeking goals of, 81
Malkin, Michelle, 231, 331
Manafort, Paul, 39, 155, 166, 271, 406n51
Manion, Clarence, 316318
“Manion Forum,” 316, 318
manipulation, definition/elements of, 3032
Manning, Chelsea, 147, 265, 425n101
manufacture of consent, 25
Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media (Herman and Chomsky), 27, 318
Marantz, Andrew, 225
Marshall, Brad, 256
Martin, Gregory, 337338
Marwick, Alice, 12, 346
Mason, Lilliana, 306
Massanari, Adrienne, 346
McAuliffe, Terry, 175
McCabe, Andrew, 175, 181, 353
McCain, John, 261, 368
McCarthyism, 153, 316
McCarty, Nolan, 298
McChesney, Robert, 28, 318
McConnell, Mitch, 83
McGregor, Shannon, 272
“The McLaughlin Group,” 107
McMullin, Evan, 130, 130f
Media, Markets, and Democracy (Baker), 28
media literacy education, 378379
Media Monopoly (Bagdikian), 28, 318
media outlets/sources. See also trust/distrust in media/journalism; specific media outlets
asymmetric structure of, 291, 318, 348
“deep state” frame and, 226
errors/failures in, 104, 220
Facebook shares in, 54t, 165
fact checking and, 377378
fairness doctrine and, 321
(p.454)
immigration mentions/debate in, 108f, 132
most popular, 282284t
negative coverage emphasis, 40
network propaganda and, 201
neutrality/objectivity and, 357
overlap/interaction between, 48
partisan-confirming news in, 78
post-election coverage, 67
prevalence/success of disinformation in, 71
professional norms and, 236
propaganda feedback loop and, 3334, 233, 328329
in realty-check dynamic, 77f
Russia/Russian interference and, 36, 243
top 50 sources, 50t
trust/distrust in, 182, 184
Twitter shares of, 52t
Medvedev, Dmitry, 237
memes/meme campaigns, 1213, 97, 223, 225226, 232, 259, 274, 341, 346347
Menczer, Filippo, 264
Mercer, Rebekah, 355
Mercer, Robert, 7, 108, 167, 197, 272, 275, 355
Merlan, Anna, 91
Michigan model (voter theory), 304
microtargeted behavioral marketing, 2122t, 41, 223, 269, 272274, 276, 278279, 361, 385, 426n19
Middle East Eye (MEE), 141142
military-industrial complex, 148
Miller, Joanne, 312
Miller, Zeke, 217
Mills, Cheryl, 203
misinformation
definition of, 6, 24
propaganda and, 3738
misperceptions, propaganda and, 3435
Mnuchin, Steven, 219
Moore, Roy, 7, 16, 358
Moral Majority, 297. See also evangelical Christians
Morell, Mayo Fuster, 333
“Morning Joe,” 94
Morozov, Evgeny, 238
Mosaic Fertilizer story, 137139
Mother Jones, 16, 38, 49, 50t, 52t, 54, 54t, 69, 69f, 70f, 74, 282t, 316
Moyers, Bill, 150, 297
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 6
MSNBC
asymmetry/asymmetric polarization and, 311, 313
Clinton Cash and, 199
Clinton Foundation stories on, 207, 208f
on Clinton pedophilia frame, 94
deep state mentions by, 154f
Facebook shares of, 54t, 70f
Fox News comparison, 8385, 312, 335
ideological positions and, 325f
immigration stories on, 127f
influence of, 65
media inlinks to, 62, 64t
as media source/outlet, 49, 50t, 72, 319, 324
media strategy of, 323, 383
partisan slant of, 338
PolitiFact scoring for, 8485f
popularity of, 282t
Twitter shares of, 52t, 69, 69f
Uranium One conspiracy theory/story on, 177178f, 178, 186f
Mueller, Robert, 18, 37, 39, 146, 154, 154f, 161, 166167, 170, 175176, 181, 184, 237, 240, 258, 263, 353, 406n51
Murdoch, Rupert, 322, 323
Muslims/Islamic terrorism frame, 105106
MyBarackObama.com (MyBO), 344345
Napolitano, Andrew, 153
The Nation, 38, 249252, 316
National Academies of Sciences, 219
National Review, 20, 49, 50t, 166, 283t, 311, 316, 331, 354
national security establishment
deep state frame and, 248
Fox News vs., 147158
(p.455)
Guccifer 2.0 story and, 245, 247
mainstream media and, 318
Republican Party and, 7
Trump on, 145
Nazi content, 12
NBC News, 50t, 52t, 54t, 69f, 70f, 91, 282t, 325f
“negative partisanship,” 308
negativity
balance and, 189196
in media coverage, 17, 357
neo-Nazi sites, 12, 124
The Net Delusion (Morozov), 238
network maps
of Clinton Foundation topic, 133f
of “Clinton pedophilia” stories, 90f
of deep state stories, 156f
of election media sources, 48f
of Forensicator theory of Guccifer 2.0, 251f
of open web media, 49f
of political media, 332f
of Seth Rich mentions, 164
of Trump coverage, 61f, 62f
of “Trump rape” stories, 90f
of Twitter media sharing, 51f, 52t, 58f, 60f, 65f
of Uranium One stories, 171173f
network propaganda. See also propaganda
definition of, 24, 33
effect of, 22
Fox News and, 92, 146
legislation and, 368
media outlets/sources and, 201, 226
repetition of claims and, 137, 201
reworking of stories for, 139
susceptibility/vulnerability to, 329
system of, 348
as threat to democracy, 38
NetzDG law, 1213, 21, 362364
NeverTrumpers, 92, 163
New Deal/Fair Deal, 297, 298, 314316
The New Republic, 316
New York Daily News, 50t
New Yorker, 50t, 54t, 69, 70f, 225, 282t, 285
New York Magazine, 50t, 91, 249
New York Post, 49, 50t, 52, 108, 176, 201, 260, 284t
New York Times
bias/truth and, 15
centrality of, 4950
climate change coverage and, 219220, 356
on Clinton corruption frame, 104
on data-fueled political campaigns, 273
Facebook shares of, 68f, 197, 199
immigration stories in, 109f, 109t, 111, 113t, 242
journalistic norms and, 15
Limbaugh’s description of, 183
manipulation of, 40
as media source, 50t, 52, 54t, 56, 67, 72, 91, 282t, 324
New York Times v. Sullivan, 376
reporting on Clinton, 167168, 171, 191192, 194, 197, 199, 201203, 207, 214, 281, 356
reporting on Trump, 9394, 131132, 247
study of, 16
trust/distrust in, 328
Twitter shares of, 47, 52t, 68f
Uranium One stories in, 170, 358
Nix, Alexander, 276, 278
Nixon, Richard, 107, 297, 316, 318, 321
Norquist, Grover, 300
Nothing Is True and Everything is Possible (Pomerantsev), 36
NPR, 15, 50t, 62, 64t, 65, 69f, 70, 70f, 72, 73, 114t, 282t, 323324, 325f, 328
Nyhan, Brendan, 34, 286287
Obama, Barack, 108, 326, 345. See also MyBarackObama.com (MyBO)
Obama administration, 37, 146, 151, 174, 176, 179180, 185, 249
objectivity, practice/norms of, 14, 16, 23, 42, 81, 104, 196, 215, 313, 318, 320, 335, 355, 357, 379, 387
Occupy Democrats, 54, 54t, 68f, 69, 71, 86, 87f, 92, 281, 282t, 283, 285t, 287
Occupy Wall Street, 332
(p.456) October surprise, 181, 270
O’Donnell, Lawrence, 311
O’Donnell, Victoria, 28
Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), 3, 147, 240, 244, 245
open web media
aggregate view of, 48f
Clinton Foundation stories on, 198f, 204207f
“globalist” term usage in, 129f
media network map, 49f
shift to social media, 333334
topics related to Trump/Clinton, 191f
2016 presidential election mentions, 17f
Uranium One mentions on, 169170f
O’Reilly, Bill, 83, 260, 311
“Orgy Island” story, 37, 85, 9297, 182, 220
The Outrage Industry (Berry and Sobieraj), 311
Pacifica Radio, 316, 323
Palmer Report, 69, 70, 70f, 71, 216
Pan, Jennifer, 35
Pariser, Eli, 290
Parscale, Brad, 270273, 275
Passman, Sophie, 363
Patterson, Thomas, 1617, 191, 196, 357
Paul, Ron, 150, 245, 331, 343
PBS, 15, 73, 184, 260, 281, 324, 325f, 328
Pelosi, Nancy, 83, 261
Pence, Mike, 152
Persily, Nathaniel, 289
Petra News Agency, 141, 335
Pew Research Center, 109t, 111, 307
Phillips, Kevin, 297
Phillips, Whitney, 12
Pierson, Paul, 300, 300
Pirro, Jeannine. See Judge Jeannine
pizza, as code word, 230231, 231f
“Pizzagate” conspiracy, 3, 160, 227, 229, 233, 244, 245, 255, 263, 367, 376
Podesta, John
email hack/dump, 136, 163, 192, 194195, 240, 245, 255, 265, 358
ISIS funding email, 139, 144
mentions per day during election period, 193f
Pizzagate and, 229230
Podesta Group and, 142
in right-wing media ecosystem, 37
Russian propaganda and, 10
Spirit Cooking event and, 226227, 354
Podesta, Tony, 142, 227
Podesta Group, 142
polarization. See also asymmetry/asymmetric polarization
media dynamics and, 308310
of political elites, 295300
political identity and, 303306
of the public, 300303
social identity and, 306308
symmetry and, 14
in U.S. Congress, 299f
political advertising, 4142, 240, 270271, 273, 276277, 366368, 370371, 373, 379, 380, 385
political clickbait fabricators. See clickbait fabricators
political communications
architecture of, 46
asymmetry in, 379
Cambridge Analytica and, 275
choices of social media/internet firms, 291
Facebook and, 270
mechanisms of, 101
misinformation and, 38
online platforms in, 45
paid advertising as, 373
paid internet as, 369
Russian interference and, 41
Tufekci on, 273
political elites
“deep state” frame and, 226
internet/technology and, 329
Islamophobia and, 132
partisanship and, 139, 302, 308
platforms for, 383
polarization of, 291, 295300, 303306
in political landscape, 76, 98
in propaganda feedback loop, 33, 328
(p.457) political information, sources of, 45
politicians
media outlets and, 76
in realty-check dynamic, 77f, 80
Politico, 49, 50t, 52, 52t, 68f, 70f, 109f, 110t, 127f, 195, 197, 207, 216, 245, 256, 272, 282t
PolitiFact, 50t, 64t, 69f, 8285, 84f, 85f, 163, 168, 170, 202, 253, 282t, 311, 376
Pomerantsev, Peter, 36
Pompeo, Mike, 252
Poole, Keith, 298, 299
Postman, Neil, 28
Premier Radio, 323
Priebus, Reince, 107
Prigozhin, Yevgeny, 240
priming, 101102
Prince, Erik, 96, 97, 233, 398n30
Prior, Markus, 330
The Progressive, 316
Project Alamo, 271
Project Veritas, 358
propaganda. See also network propaganda
definition/elements of, 6, 24, 2930, 80
effects of, 3438
intellectual history of, 2429
in markets, 27
white-/gray-/black-, 32, 95, 159160, 239240, 243245, 253, 267
Propaganda and Persuasion (Jowett and O’Donnell), 28
propaganda feedback loop
definition of, 33
influence of, 41
model of, 79f
psychological theory and, 336337
vs. reality check dynamic, 8591
Republican Party radicalization and, 7
right-wing media and, 42
“Propaganda Model,” of mass media, 27
propaganda pipeline
definition of, 3334, 223, 225
importance of, 12, 40
spirit cooking story in, 232
transmission of narratives through, 233, 245
Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes (Ellul), 27
protest orchestration, 263264
psychographic data, 11, 276
public
consumption of news by, 76
in realty-check dynamic, 77f
Public Opinion (Lippman), 3, 25, 26
Public Policy Polling, 261
pundits, media outlets and, 76
Putin, Vladimir, 36, 174175, 180, 235, 237, 242, 249, 254
Radack, Jesselyn, 252
radicalization, of right-wing media ecosystem, 1416
Raines, Howell, 183
rallies/protests, 263264
rape accusation, against Donald Trump, 9192
rational voter theory, 304
Raw Story, 52, 52t, 54t, 6970, 6970f, 216217, 282t, 284
Reagan, Ronald, 7, 106107, 144, 321, 322, 326
Real Clear Politics, 50t, 110t, 283t
“reality-check dynamic”
media ecosystem and, 7778, 80
model of, 77f
Reason, 127f, 166, 253, 283t
Reddit/subreddit threads, 12, 13, 40, 93, 161, 223, 226227, 229, 245, 248, 259, 346, 360, 416n19
RedState, 6970f, 127f, 283t, 285t, 331
regulation, of platforms, 360362, 365367
Reid, Harry, 261
Reifler, Jason, 34, 286287
religious broadcasting, 314, 319. See also evangelical Christians
Republican National Committee (RNC), 107, 271272
Republican Party
“fake news” and, 4
governance difficulties and, 16
(p.458)
populist right-wing politics and, 4
Trump Party takeover of, 7
Reuters, 50t, 52t, 63, 69f, 70, 109t, 113t, 283t
Rich, Seth, 39, 103, 146, 155, 159166, 160f, 162f, 164f, 165f, 182, 214215, 220, 240
Rich Media, Poor Democracy (McChesney), 28
right-wing media ecosystem
behavior of, 1316
early success of, 334
first generation of, 42, 317319, 321
second-generation of, 182, 319, 321
Risen, James, 252
Roberts, Margaret, 35
Rohozinski, Rafal, 238
Romney, Mitt, 107, 130, 130f
Rooney, Francis, 7
Rosenstein, Rod, 37, 161, 167, 175176, 181, 353
Rosenthal, Howard, 298, 299
Ross, Brian, 216
Ross, Dennis, 138
Roth, Zachary, 261
Rothschild, David, 16, 191, 196
Rove, Karl, 272
RT (formerly Russia Today), 36, 142, 150, 164, 239240, 243245, 248249, 266f, 267
Rubio, Marco, 57, 353
Rusher, William, 311
Russian Direct Investment Fund, 218
Russian interference hypothesis
conclusions about, 267268
cyberattacks on American targets, 235
existence vs. impact, 239, 241, 245246, 250, 252, 254255
hacking/doxxing and, 910, 239240, 255262
origins of, 237239
propaganda and useful idiots, 243254
protest orchestration, 263264
skepticism about, 235236, 245, 247, 252, 289
social media influence, 240243, 262263
Twitter bots and, 264267
Ukrainian crisis, 238239
Russian propaganda
activists and, 12
in American media ecosystem, 4041, 225, 236
clickbait factories and, 264
conspiracy theories and, 160
disorientation and, 36
email hacking and, 192, 239
European Union and, 253
Facebook and, 10
generalized trust and, 268
in German elections, 22
in right-wing media ecosystem, 329
RT content and, 244
sites as pathways for, 254
susceptibility to, 23
targets of, 99
True Pundit and, 267
in US elections, 235
WikiLeaks and, 245
Rusyayeva, Polina, 242
Ryan, Paul, 7, 19, 83, 115t, 116t, 118t, 120t, 123t
The Saker (pseudonym), 152, 245
Salon, 16, 46, 50t, 52, 52t, 54, 54t, 64t, 69f, 70f, 195, 250, 282t, 406n51
Sanchez, Julian, 354
Sanders, Bernie, 193f, 199, 200, 227, 239, 247248, 255256, 270, 272, 342. See also BernieSanders.com
Sarnoff, David, 320321
Saunders, Kyle, 301
Scaife, Richard Mellon, 192, 194
Scaife Foundation, 192
Scaramucci, Anthony, 218
Schiff, Adam, 246
Schudson, Michael, 313
Schulz, Debbie Wasserman, 163
Schumer, Chuck, 83
Schweizer, Peter, 166168, 171, 174, 185, 197, 199, 202, 214, 356, 358
Scott, Ben, 273, 274
Secured Borders, 241242, 263
Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, 246247
(p.459) Sessions, Jeff, 119t, 181, 185
Seth Rich conspiracy theory, 39, 103, 146, 155, 159166, 160f, 162f, 164f, 165f, 182, 214215, 220, 240
Seymour, Brittney, 38
Shapiro, Jesse, 338339
Shaw, Aaron, 330
Shaw, Adrienne, 346
Sheffield, Matthew, 354
Sifry, Micah, 344
Silsby, Laura, 229, 248
Silverman, Craig, 3, 9, 269, 385
Simonyan, Margarita, 244
Sinclair Broadcasting, 163, 173, 361
Skocpol, Theda, 312
Slate, 49, 50t, 54, 54t, 64t, 69, 69f, 70f, 282t
Snowden, Edward, 147, 249
Sobieraj, Sarah, 311312
social identity/social identity theory, 166, 300, 306308, 378
social media
infiltration of, 258262
influence of, 240243
support for Trump and, 338
to suppress/split vote, 262263
social media entrepreneurs, 9, 236
sockpuppets, 910, 2122f, 102, 240243, 254, 259, 329, 346, 368369, 372374
Solomon, John F., 173174, 176
solutions/interventions
defamation law and, 376
disclosure/accountability and, 367368
Honest Ads Act, 367371, 373, 375
institutionalization of fact checking, 376378
media literacy education, 378
paid social promotion and, 372375
platform regulation, 360362
professional journalism and, 355359
public health approach, 375
public machine-readable open database, 371372
reconstructing center-right media, 353355
role of government, 362365
self-regulation, 365367
sorting process, of voters, 301
Southern Poverty Law Center, 124, 160
Southern Strategy, 297, 299
Specter, Arlen, 353
Spirit Cooking event, 226227, 228f, 231
Sputnik News, 36, 218, 226, 227, 232, 239, 243247, 249
Steele Dossier, 147, 153
Stein, Jill, 227, 240, 262
Stelter, Brian, 225
Stewart, Jon, 323
Stillwell, David, 275276
Stone, Roger, 152, 260
Strange, Lucas, 16
Strategic Culture Foundation, 245
Sunstein, Cass, 30, 290, 330
Talking Points Memo, 50t, 62, 64t, 69f, 217, 331
talk radio, 20, 42, 45, 72, 81, 147, 176, 273, 310312, 314, 319329, 334, 380, 384
Tampa Bay Times, 83. See also PolitiFact
Tea Party, 4, 312, 353
TEN_GOP, 242, 259, 261
Thiel, Peter, 376
Think Progress, 52t, 114t, 216, 282t
Tillerson, Rex, 19
Toomey, Pat, 353
Townhall, 331, 347
Trans-Pacific Partnership, 270
Treasury Department, 218
trolls, 233, 237, 243. See also alt-right trolls
True Pundit, 9596, 155, 253, 266267, 266f, 288, 398n30
Trump, Donald. See also DonaldJTrump.com
as candidate/president, 1820, 105
digital campaign of, 270274
election of, 3, 7
embrace of conspiracy theories by, 18
“Fake News Awards” of, 4, 15, 183f, 217218, 220
“fake news” term usage, 9
immigration agenda of, 105106
media coverage of, 17f, 61f, 62f, 190f
use of Twitter by, 1819
Trump, Donald, Jr., 166, 216, 227, 247, 406n51
(p.460) Trump rape frame
coverage of, 8591, 8790f
Jane Doe accusation, 9192
Trump Tower meeting, 154, 166, 247, 251
trust/distrust in media/journalism
asymmetry and, 311, 318
disinformation and, 387
in Germany, 22, 341
Hannity on, 182
by ideological identity, 325f
media literacy education and, 377378
online/offline media and, 334336
partisan-confirming news and, 7880, 380
patterns of, 45, 20, 73, 98, 184, 339
propaganda feedback loop and, 79f
in realty-check dynamic, 77f
by Republicans, 188
right-wing media ecosystem and, 13, 15, 354355
Russian interference and, 267268
standards/responsibility and, 218
studies/surveys on, 324329, 327f, 367
systematic undermining of, 322
Truthfeed, 14, 54, 54t, 66, 69f, 7071, 86, 87f, 155, 161, 176, 231, 280, 282, 284, 284t, 285t, 287
Tucker, Joshua, 264
Tufekci, Zeynep, 273274, 333, 343, 345
Turnbull, Mark, 276
Turner Broadcasting Station (TBS), 319320
21stcenturywire.com, 244245, 253
Twitter
automated/fake accounts and, 10
deep state frame on, 155, 157f
in first year of Trump presidency, 6571
immigration discussions on, 113114t
media sharing on, 51f, 52t, 58f, 60f, 65f, 68f
open web stories on, 154f
partisan distribution on, 66f
Russian bots on, 264268
Russian interference and, 10
second-tier media source shares on, 69f
Trump’s use of, 1819, 145f
in 2016 election period, 5153
Twitter and Teargas (Tufekci), 343
2016 presidential elections
asymmetric architecture of news media, 23
asymmetric polarization in, 4648
Breitbart/Fox News influence during, 5760
epochal change reflected by, 7
Facebook in, 5354
misleading information in, 3
open web media mentions during, 17f, 4851
patterns of authority/attention during, 5456
post-election asymmetry, 6065
Twitter in, 5153
Uranium One conspiracy theory/story
case study on, 166188
Clinton Cash film and, 167168
fact checking and, 377
Fox News framing of, 39, 139, 146, 177185, 214215
investigative reporting on, 173177
on-line coverage of, 169173
news segment mentions on, 186f
New York Times coverage of, 203, 358
open web mentions of, 186f
in political media ecosystem, 220, 354
Trump’s embrace of, 18
videos about, 177178f
USA Today, 49, 50t, 52t, 69f, 70f, 110t, 127f, 283t
useful idiots, 243, 253
Vanity Fair, 219220
Van Susteren, Greta, 95, 97
VDARE, 124, 127f, 128, 132
Veselnitskaya, Natalia, 247
Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity (VIPS), 248250, 252
Veterans News Now, 151
Virgil (pseudonym), 151, 245
voter fraud, 258261, 259f, 260f
voter suppression, 260, 262, 270, 279
(p.461) voting patterns
advertising and, 278
ideological positions and, 298
media effect on, 338
partisanship in, 296f
Vox, 49, 50t, 52t, 54, 54t, 64t, 65, 69, 69f, 70f, 110t, 127f, 166, 282t
Wallace, George, 4
Wallace, Mike, 153
Wall Street Journal, 38, 49, 50t, 52t, 63, 69f, 70f, 74, 75, 108, 108f, 112, 113t, 207, 242, 283t, 323, 353, 356
Wardle, Clair, 23
Warner, Mark, 368
Warren, Elizabeth, 219
Washington Examiner, 49, 50t, 52t, 64t, 65, 69f, 70f, 110t, 114t, 197, 284t
Washington Monthly, 250
Washington Post
center-left popularity of, 282t
climate change coverage and, 220, 356
critique of Fox, 165
“deep state” framing and, 151
email-related stories, 195, 213214, 216217, 256
in Facebook-based network, 54t, 68f, 211
fact checking and, 83, 168, 170, 203, 376
Free Republic lawsuit, 329
Hannity on, 182
immigration mentions on, 109f, 109t, 111, 114t
journalistic norms and, 15
media attention and, 207
in open web link economy, 4851
pre-/post-election attention, 67
Project Veritas and, 358
sensationalist headlines in, 281, 356
structure of attention and, 56
Trump’s “Fake News Awards” and, 183, 217
in Twitter-based network, 47, 52, 68f
used to legitimize claims, 199, 202
on voter fraud, 260261
WikiLeaks’ emails dump, 144
Washington Times, 49, 50t, 52, 64t, 69f, 93, 114t, 173, 176, 226, 228f, 231, 284t
Wasserman, Casey, 211212
Watson, Paul Joseph, 151
Watts, Duncan, 16, 191, 196
WeAreChange, 177f, 178, 178f, 227, 230, 231f, 245, 246
Weaver, Warren, Jr., 297
Webster, Steven, 308
Weekly Standard, 166, 253, 283t, 331
Weidel, Alice, 363
Weigel, Dave, 217
Weiner, Anthony, 95
well-informed rational voter theory, 304
Western Journalism, 54, 54t, 70, 70f, 86, 87f, 96, 231, 282, 284, 284t, 285t, 287
Westwood, Sean, 308
Wheeler, Rod, 162164, 166
white-identity, 102, 132, 179, 240, 297, 299, 382
white-nationalist publications/sites, 124127
white propaganda. See propaganda
white supremacists, 1113, 132
Wiebe, Kirk, 248
WikiLeaks
on Clinton Foundation, 134136, 144
DNC email leak, 239, 242, 245249, 255
effect of, 265
false reports and, 216
inlinks to, 64t, 266f
on ISIS funding email, 140141, 140f
Pizzagate and, 231232
popularity of, 284t
Russian interference and, 159
Seth Rich conspiracy theory and, 162163
Spirt Cooking event and, 226227
Wikipedia, 124, 396n8
Williamson, Vanessa, 312
Winner-Take-All-Politics (Hacker and Pierson), 300
WND (right-wing site), 96, 231
World Anti-Doping Agency, 230, 232
(p.462) Wyand, Jared (@JaredWyand), 161, 230, 232
Wylie, Chris, 276
Yahoo! News, 50t, 52t, 69f, 70f, 114t, 176, 197, 283t
Yglesias, Matthew, 213
Young, Robbin, 247
YourNewsWire, 9596, 160, 165, 244, 253, 288, 398n30
YouTube
ad purchases on, 372
analysis of, 73
campaign-related stories on, 200f
centrality of, 165
Clinton Cash on, 199200
“deep state” frame and, 151153, 155156, 157f
distribution of information on, 365366
as media source, 50t
public interest and, 375
right-wing media ecosystem and, 176177
Russian interference and, 242
Uranium One conspiracy theory/story on, 178f, 179
Yunnus, Muhammad, 213
Yurukoglu, Ali, 337338
Zakharov, Andrei, 242
Zero Hedge, 14, 141142, 143f, 150153, 158f, 245, 247248, 253254, 335
Zimmerman, Malia, 95, 162, 163, 214