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Kant and the Science of LogicA Historical and Philosophical Reconstruction$
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Huaping Lu-Adler

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190907136

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190907136.001.0001

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The Making of a Scientific Logic from Bacon to Wolff

The Making of a Scientific Logic from Bacon to Wolff

Chapter:
(p.69) 3 The Making of a Scientific Logic from Bacon to Wolff
Source:
Kant and the Science of Logic
Author(s):

Huaping Lu-Adler

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190907136.003.0004

This chapter examines how Francis Bacon, Locke, Leibniz, and Wolff view the nature of logic and its role in our cognitive endeavors. Bacon initiates a “natural history” method by which to overhaul all philosophical sciences, including logic. Following this method, Locke measures the legitimacy of a putative logic against facts about the natural workings of human intellect and challenges the view that the Aristotelian syllogistic is necessary to the proper use of our reason. Leibniz responds to this challenge by making syllogism part of “universal logic” and by grounding a logical theory (logica artificialis) on a divinely sourced natural logic (logica naturalis). Drawing on Leibniz’s ideas as well as certain medieval traditions, Wolff develops an elaborate account of natural and artificial logics as what represent, though in different manners, the same rules that regulate our mental operations, and thereby seeks to restore the centrality of syllogism in all philosophical sciences.

Keywords:   organon, natural history, natural logic, artificial logic, theoretical logic, practical logic, syllogism, psychology, prejudice

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