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Sources of Mongolian Buddhism$
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Vesna A. Wallace

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780190900694

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190900694.001.0001

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The Khalkha Zaya Paṇḍita’s Smoke Offering Rituals to the Khangai Mountain Range

The Khalkha Zaya Paṇḍita’s Smoke Offering Rituals to the Khangai Mountain Range

(p.207) 10 The Khalkha Zaya Paṇḍita’s Smoke Offering Rituals to the Khangai Mountain Range
Sources of Mongolian Buddhism

Krisztina Teleki

Oxford University Press

This chapter introduces the life and activity of the Khalkha Zaya Paṇḍita, Luvsanprinlei (Tib. Blo bzang ‘phrin las, 1642–1719), briefly describes his sixteen smoke offering ritual texts, and provides a translation of selected five short texts dedicated to different geographical sites in the Khangai Mountain Range. The five texts reflect the Mongols’ belief in spirit landowners, or caretakers, who must be pacified and pleased with offerings and encouraged to ensure prosperity and well-being. The male deity of the Khangai Range, together with its female consort, has manifold retinues, including local gods and spirits who live in nearby valleys, lakes, and springs. The colophons of the five texts mention Zaya Paṇḍita as the author, and they name monks and laypeople who encouraged and supported him. The five texts illustrate how smoke offering practices spread at the turn of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Mongolia. Several geographical sites mentioned in the texts can be identified in the current area of Arkhangai, Zavkhan, and Bayankhongor provinces.

Keywords:   purification rituals, mountain cult, nāga spirits, spirit landowners, polymaths of Mongolia, Khangai Range, Khangai deity

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