For decades, natural resources and environmental management was approached as needing scientific and technical expertise, as well as the ability to identify different societal needs and aspirations. Government often was viewed as the dominant decision-maker. Today, it is increasingly recognized that governance is another key element. Here, attention is given to differentiating between governance and government, and to opportunities for different types of governance. With growing recognition of the value of learning from experience, consideration turns to adaptive environmental management. Consideration next is directed to co-management, as an approach to allocate more responsibility and authority to local stakeholders. Two case studies, national parks in England and a mangrove preserve in Tanzania, provide insight into experience with adaptive management and co-management. In his guest statement, Nigel Watson reviews governance arrangements regarding water quality for Loweswater in the Lake District of England.
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