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Refuge beyond ReachHow Rich Democracies Repel Asylum Seekers$
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David Scott FitzGerald

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190874155

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190874155.001.0001

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Origins and Limits of Remote Control

Origins and Limits of Remote Control

Chapter:
(p.41) Chapter 3 Origins and Limits of Remote Control
Source:
Refuge beyond Reach
Author(s):

David Scott FitzGerald

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190874155.003.0003

Many theories try to explain why remote controls of asylum seekers proliferated in the 1980s and 1990s, but most techniques of remote control were developed in the 1930s and 1940s. Policies to push out the border were ad hoc responses to perceived crises that then spread as governments copied each other’s policies. Europeanization took this process toward convergence the furthest of all the cases. Over time, policies have tended to converge across the Global North as multiple forces, such as the end of the Cold War and the broadening of the refugee definition, incentivized further remote control. This chapter describes the broad factors that promoted the spread of remote control as well as where those impulses have been constrained by countervailing forces arising from the courts, transnational advocacy networks, and foreign policy interests.

Keywords:   Remote control, securitization, Refugee Convention, refugee status determination, technological determinism, policy diffusion, human rights law, transnational advocacy, international brand

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