The refusal of the Boston Symphony Orchestra management to program “The Star-Spangled Banner” in Providence, Rhode Island, on 30 October led to nationwide outrage against Karl Muck in early November. Anti-German sentiment ran high as concerts by Muck’s orchestra were cancelled in Baltimore and concerts by Fritz Kreisler were banned in Pittsburgh. The Metropolitan Opera dropped all German operas from its repertoire. Both Walter Damrosch and Ernestine Schumann-Heink went to great lengths to prove their patriotism, but Schumann-Heink broke under the strain and withdrew from the stage for six weeks. The Fifteenth Regiment had orders to ship out to France but was delayed twice in November. This month was a significant turning point in American attitudes, as jazz became increasingly popular and European music and musicians were viewed with suspicion and disdain.
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