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Youth Labor in TransitionInequalities, Mobility, and Policies in Europe$

Jacqueline O'Reilly, Janine Leschke, Renate Ortlieb, Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Paola Villa

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190864798

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190864798.001.0001

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(p.707) Index

(p.707) Index

Source:
Youth Labor in Transition
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
access restrictions (transition measures) for CEE migrants 392–93, 395, 421, 422–23, 426, 435, 448, 449
accommodation sector 3–4, 45, 46, 47, 48, 605, 671–72
active labor market policy. See ALMP
age-period-cohort analysis. See HAPC
agricultural sector 465–66, 604, 605
ALMP across school-to-work transition regimes 72, 73–76, 77, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 97
ALMP capacity strengthening 88, 89
ALMP expenditure and school-to-work trajectories 250–51, 255–58, 261–62, 263
apprenticeships 15–16, 77–81, 83, 93–94, 178–79, 180, 184, 673, 691, 697–98
Apprenticeship Trailblazers (United Kingdom) 83, 93, 171, 172–77, 182, 184
assimilation of migrants in host countries 392, 410, 419, 423
attitudes of young people toward trade unions. See under trade unions
attitudes of young people toward work. See under work values
baby boomer generation 629, 630
bogus self-employment. See under self-employment
Brexit 83, 419–20, 435
business start-ups. See self-employment
CCI (cultural and creative industry) sector
job-creation potential 611, 618–19
employment quality in 611
self-employment in 23–24, 602, 617–18
cointegration estimation approach 535–36, 543–46
communication technologies. See ICT
construction sector 12–13, 34–35, 37, 45–46, 47, 51, 53–54, 55, 56, 429
co-residence of young adults with parents
contribution to household expenses 19, 337, 359, 360, 361, 363, 365–67, 368, 369, 370–71, 376, 699
cross-country differences 362, 365–67, 373–74
in high-income households 369–70, 371–72, 377
impact on employment quality 285–86, 287–88
impact on young adults’ income situation 359, 360, 374–75, 699 (p.708)
independent decision-making on spending 358–59, 360, 363, 367, 371–72, 376
intra-household inequality 19, 358, 359, 360–61, 375–76
intra-household sharing of income/resources 19, 359, 360, 361, 368–69, 374–75, 376, 377, 699
relative income 359, 362, 364, 365, 367–68, 376
in low-income households 359, 361, 377
corporatist governance 173, 187
corporatist learning 172, 173, 177
country-specific recommendations. See CSRs
CSRs (country-specific recommendations) 105–6, 107
cultural and creative industry. See CCI
deunionization. See trade unions
discouragement with labor market 22, 41–42, 87–88, 204, 222, 510, 518–19, 520–21, 523, 524–25. See also disengagement from labor market; NEETs
discrimination
against ethnic minorities 563–64, 565–66, 584
against migrants 389–90, 392, 410, 412–13, 419, 434, 447
against young workers 675–76 See also stigmatization
disengagement from labor market 14, 88–89, 165, 168–69, 505–6, 510, 511, 512–13, 518, 519, 520, 521. See also discouragement with labor market; NEETs
domestic care sector 444, 450, 452–53, 455–56
dualism and dualization in labor markets 37, 74, 94, 154–56, 421, 422–23, 434, 663–64
duration of unemployment
duration dependence 199, 204, 211, 219–23
effect on employment prospects 196–97, 204, 211, 224
effect on future employment quality 271, 274–75, 276, 277, 278, 562–63
of youth compared to prime-age workers 219
early career insecurity 1–2, 9, 11–12, 16, 104–5, 117, 255, 261, 263, 421, 563
ECB (European Central Bank) 87, 113, 121–22
economic crisis. See Great Recession
educational matching and mismatching. See occupational matching and mismatching
EES (European Employment Strategy)
and flexicurity 106, 122
functioning and influence of 105–9, 112
position of young people in 107–9, 122
and social protection 133
EMCO (European Commission Employment Committee) 503, 506, 511
employability
enhancement through ALMP 16, 86, 104–5, 106, 134–35, 694
enhancement through VET 180–84, 188
enhancement through work experience 582
following unemployment 565–66
employability security
employability skills 13–14, 33, 74, 83–84, 86
and flexibility/flexicurity 106, 122–23, 134–35, 338
shift in focus to 106, 134–35
employer engagement in school-to-work transitions 34, 56–57, 83, 86, 689–90, 698, 702–3
employment protection legislation
effect on school-to-work trajectories 8, 250–51, 255–58, 261–62, 263
and flexibilization 94, 106–7, 112–14, 121, 134–35, 138–39
and segmentation 94, 97–98 See also under employment quality
employment quality
ALMP effects 250–51, 255–58, 261–62
characteristics 600, 606
deterioration of 36, 55–56
dimension of employment security 238–39, 240, 247, 255, 258–62
dimension of income security 238–39, 240, 247, 261–62
dimension of income success 240, 247
dimension of occupational match 238–39, 240, 247
dimensions of dynamic concept of 11–12, 17, 18, 237, 240, 259, 262
duration of unemployment and 271, 274–75, 276, 277, 278, 562–63
education effects 18, 245, 246, 247, 250, 251, 255, 261, 273, 281–82, 287
employment continuity and 271, 279–80, 287
employment protection effects 250–51, 255–58, 261–62, 263
family status effect 272, 275–76, 285–89
gender effects 18, 238, 245, 246, 247, 251, 255, 261, 263
as high-skilled job 276–77
of migrants 392, 423, 456, 461–62, 493
objective factors 240, 273, 600–1
satisfaction and 273, 274, 601, 607
subjective factors 240, 273, 600–1 (p.709)
well-being and 240, 273, 600, 619
as well-paid job 276, 277
employment status trajectories 237, 238–39, 240–44, 262
entrepreneurship. See self-employment
ethnic differences 23, 561, 563, 567, 569, 571–72, 574–75, 578, 579, 580–81, 582–84
EU-LFS (European Union Labour Force Survey) description 467, 601
EURES (European Employment Services) 446, 696–97
Europe C2020 strategy 107, 108, 109, 112, 121–22, 134–35, 506, 508, 597
European Alliance for Apprenticeships 178–79, 180, 182, 186–87, 697–98
European Central Bank. See ECB
European Commission Employment Committee. See EMCO
European Employment Services. See EURES
European Employment Strategy. See EES
European Social Survey description 393
European Union Labour Force Survey. See EU-LFS
European Values Study. See EVS
European Youth Guarantee. See Youth Guarantee
EVS (European Values Study) 24, 513–14, 629, 632–33
exploitation of workers 21, 445, 447, 456
exportability of social benefits. See social benefits: transferability
family caring responsibilities 5, 22, 583
family formation 19, 104, 117, 335, 340, 637–41
family legacies
intergenerational transmission of disadvantages and inequalities 14–15, 18, 285, 294, 298–99, 311, 517, 661–62, 698–99
intergenerational transmission of worklessness 17, 294–98, 303, 305–6, 310, 311–12
explanations of 296–97
through dual-earner families 295, 302, 309
through lone mothers 295, 302–5, 306, 309–10, 312
through male-breadwinners 295, 302, 309–10, 312
through “mother-in-law effect” 295, 298, 299, 306
through one-parent or two-parent households 302, 306–10, 312
through work-rich or work-poor households 18, 302, 306–10, 312, 699
fiscal consolidation. See austerity
fixed-term employment. See temporary employment
flexibility. See labor market flexibility
flexibility–security interface
flexibility–security trade-off 132, 134–35, 155, 240
vicious and virtuous relationships 16, 135, 150, 153, 155–56
flexicurity policy approach 16, 104, 106, 107–8, 112–14, 115, 116, 121, 122, 134–35, 172, 695–96
food sector 3–4, 45, 46, 47, 48, 605, 617, 671–72
gender differences
in career pathways 255, 261, 263
in employment continuity 255, 261, 263
in employment quality (see employment quality: gender effects)
in labor market outcomes of young migrants 390, 391, 392, 399–400, 404–8, 409–10, 411, 412–13
in occupational matching and mismatching 247, 261, 273–74
in overeducation 399–400, 409–10, 533
reflected in policymaking 108, 122–23, 179, 700–1
in sectoral distribution of youth employment 34–35, 45, 51, 52, 449, 450
in youth self-employment 399–400, 598, 605, 606–7, 610, 618
generational differences reflected in policymaking 122–23
generations
GenX 629, 630
millennials 630, 667–29, 675
as problematic concept for research 627–28, 630–31
baby boomers 629, 630
Ghent system of unemployment insurance 672–73
gig economy 3, 597–98, 661–62, 675, 703
Great Recession
impact on employment quality 18–19, 55–56, 117–18, 673–74, 694–95, 703
impact on income security 132, 133–34, 135–36, 142, 154–55
impact on labor market flexibility 104, 107–8, 132, 133–34, 135, 138–39, 661–62
impact on policy learning and transfer 186–87 (p.710)
impact on probability of leaving or returning to parental home 19, 334–35, 339–40, 342, 348, 349–50, 351–52, 358
impact on school-to-work transitions 9, 71, 96, 254–55, 672–73, 691
impact on sectoral distribution of youth employment 15, 35, 37, 38, 51–52, 56, 694–95
impact on social benefits 132, 133–34, 147, 148, 150–53, 154
impact on youth unemployment 1, 2–3, 4–5, 9, 12–13, 15, 36, 41, 43, 199, 210, 334
HAPC (hierarchical age–period–cohort) regression model 631, 632, 633, 635, 638, 642, 644
health sector 3–4, 34–35, 45, 605–6
hierarchical regression. See HAPC
high-tech sector. See ICT sector
hiring freeze for youth 15, 36, 44–45, 47, 50, 53–54, 55–57
holiday leave for self-employed 599, 611
hospitality sector 34–35, 444, 450, 451–52, 453–54, 455–56
human clouds 597–98, 619
ICT sector
migrant labor in 444–45, 449–51, 453, 454–56
self-employment in 23–24, 602, 606, 611, 617–19
income security 133, 142–43, 148–50, 237–38, 244, 694, 695–96
information/communication technology sector. See ICT sector
information technology sector. See ICT sector
intermediaries. See LMIs
International Labour Organization
Decent Work Agenda 600
definition of employment 39
definition of unemployment 506
IT sector. See ICT sector
JEEP program (Belgium) 171, 182, 184–85
job creation
job-creation potential of self-employment 597–98, 602, 608, 610–11, 617, 618–19
since crisis 73–76, 694–95
for youth 35–36, 51–52, 54–55
job quality. See employment quality
labor demand for youth 2–3, 36, 37, 74, 80, 82, 85, 87, 94, 98
labor market dynamics. See labor market flows
labor market flows between employment statuses
age effects 195, 196, 197, 198, 205–10, 218, 223
decomposition 17–18, 196, 197, 200, 201, 210, 235
determinants 199, 201–4, 211, 218
education effects 218
gender effects 218
labor market intermediaries. See LMIs
labor market outsiders 13, 106, 113–14, 121, 421, 426, 663–64
labor market segmentation
education/class-based 2, 255–58, 700
gender-based 2, 13, 255–58, 698–99, 700
nationality/ethnicity-based 2, 13, 422–23, 435, 436, 698–99, 700
Labour Market Reforms Database. See LABREF
LABREF (Labour Market Reforms Database) 104–5, 114–15, 143
language skills of migrants 435, 535, 565–66
last-in, first-out contracts (LIFO) 196, 198, 204, 421
leaving parental home
cross-country differences 337, 339–40, 342, 351
determinants 336
employment effect 19, 334–35, 340–42, 349, 352
impact of Great Recession 19, 334–35, 339–40, 342, 348, 351–53, 358
partnership effect 19, 334–35, 340–42, 349, 352 See also returning to parental home
lifelong learning 134–35, 186
Lisbon Strategy 134–35, 600
LMIs (labor market intermediaries):
administrative services, provision of 21, 444–47, 453
information services, provision of 445–47, 452–53
matchmaking services, provision of 444–47, 453, 455
NGOs as 445, 450 (p.711)
online job portals as 21, 443–45, 451–53, 454, 455
in private sector 445–47, 450–51, 452, 697
public employment services as 21, 443–44, 445, 451–52
in public sector 445–47, 450, 451–52, 494, 697
role in building networks 444, 448, 455
role in labor market outcomes 447, 456
role in reducing transaction costs 444–133, 448, 454, 456, 697
role in risk management 444, 448, 455, 456
social networks as 443–45, 451–52, 455–56
temporary work agencies as 21, 443–44, 445, 447, 451, 697
long-term unemployed 22, 519, 523
manufacturing sector 3, 12–13, 34, 45, 51, 53–54, 55, 56, 550, 553–55, 665, 673
marginalization of youth 4, 185–86, 195, 198–99, 207, 210, 223, 510
matching and mismatching. See occupational matching and mismatching
maternity pay 599, 618
mentoring 172, 184, 619, 677
migrants
education levels 392–93, 397
employment levels 397–98, 401–4, 419–20, 426, 428, 433–34, 436, 461–62
employment quality 423, 461–62, 493
labor market integration 436, 696–97
marginal employment 419–20, 425, 430, 436
nonstandard employment 419–20, 428–29, 434, 436
occupational status 432
overeducation 397–98, 404, 408–9, 422
precarious employment 421, 422, 433–34, 435, 436
qualification and skill mismatch 165, 419–20, 422, 425, 430–31, 432–33, 435, 436
qualitative labor market integration 419–20, 422, 423, 424, 426, 434–35, 436
quantitative labor market integration 419–20, 422, 423, 424, 426, 434
returnees (see returnees)
return migration (see return migration)
solo self-employment 391, 397–98, 408–9, 419–20, 429, 430, 434, 435, 436
temporary employment 397–98, 419–20, 428–29, 434, 436
wage and income levels 419–20, 421, 423, 425, 430, 431, 433, 434, 435, 436
weak upward occupational mobility 461–62, 464, 493
working conditions 13, 419, 443, 455, 456
millennial generation 630, 667–29, 675
“minijobs” (Germany) 422, 425, 430, 431, 434, 436
minimum wages 74, 172, 424, 425, 430, 431, 675–76
MISSOC (Mutual Information System on Social Protection) 104–5, 143
multi-helix governance. See triple-helix governance
Mutual Information System on Social Protection. See MISSOC
NEET concept
definitions 503, 505–6, 509
disaggregation of indicator 22, 518–20, 524
Eurostat indicator for 506–7, 511, 513–14
origins and evolution 22, 503–6
value added and limitations 504, 509–10, 524
NEET population
characteristics 512, 513–14
composition 22, 509–10, 518, 520–21
education levels 305, 512, 517–18
as European policy priority 508, 510
gender differences 12–13, 305, 512, 514 521, 523, 700
health status 509–10, 513, 514, 517–18, 523
heterogeneity 5, 503–5, 506, 509, 522–23, 524
policies for 74, 88–89, 92, 97, 185, 503–4, 510, 518, 521, 523–24–, 693
poverty risk 167, 168–69, 184
rates xix, 5, 6, 79, 168–69, 299–302, 503, 507, 511
risk factors for being NEET 274–75, 298–99, 302–10, 311–12, 512–13, 514–17
stigmatization of 505–6, 509–10
voluntary NEETs 509–10, 513, 518–20
Youth Guarantee and 88–89, 92–93, 122, 503, 508, 510, 523–24, 702
neighborhood deprivation 574–75, 582
NGOs (non-governmental organizations)
as labor market intermediaries 445, 450
supporting youth integration 185
nonemployment
definition 562
effects 38, 335, 562, 565–66
non-governmental organizations. See NGOs
occupational matching and mismatching
in early career 111–12, 117, 155, 197–98, 273–74, 275, 281, 284, 287
employment quality and 18, 123, 237–39, 240, 247, 258, 426, 694 (p.712)
gender differences 247, 261, 273–74
need for intervention 74, 83, 86, 96, 179, 182
in self-employment 604, 607–8, 611, 616, 617, 618–19 See also overeducation
Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (ONS-LS) description 567–68
Open Method of Coordination (OMC) 105–6, 109, 173, 175, 701
outsiders. See labor market outsiders
overeducation
consequences of 530–31, 556, 704
convergence across countries 531, 535, 536–37, 543, 546–50, 551–53, 556
cross-country comparison 532, 533–34, 537–46, 550, 555
definitions 244, 395, 530–31, 534–35
determinants of 86–87, 531–33, 535, 536–37, 550–55, 556, 698
employment quality and 240, 244, 273
evolution over time 22–23, 530–31, 536–37, 539–42, 543, 544, 556
gender differences 399–400, 409–10, 533
levels among adults 531, 539–42
levels among youth 408–9, 410–11, 531, 535, 539–42, 543
levels overall 22–23, 534–35, 537–42, 543, 556
policy coordination, possible 530–31, 546, 556–57
overqualification. See overeducation
own-account workers. See self-employment: solo self-employed
part-time employment 15, 51–53, 109, 117–18, 671
paternity pay 599, 618
peer-to-peer learning 172–78, 182, 187
Pohl and Walther’s typology of youth transition regimes 8–9, 34, 71–72, 74, 76, 95–96, 98, 566, 601, 672–73, 691
policy entrepreneurs
in policy innovation 164, 166, 175, 180, 181, 186–87
in VET reform 178–80, 182, 185–86, 702
policy transfer and learning 16–17, 165, 166, 170, 173, 187–88, 701
public employment services. See PES
public employment services as LMIs 21, 443–44, 445, 451–52
R&D spending and overeducation 533, 550–53, 554
recession. See Great Recession
research and development. See R&D
retail sector 3–4, 35, 45, 47, 50–51, 53–54, 55, 550, 605, 617, 671–72
“returnee” migrants
characteristics compared to “stayers” and “current emigrants” 21–22, 462–64, 465, 471, 472, 474, 476, 487
education level of 463, 465, 471, 487, 490
gender of 471, 487, 488–89
labor market status post-return 21–22, 462–63, 465, 471–76, 487, 488, 489–90, 491–92
labor market status pre-return 471, 487, 489, 491–92
occupational status 463, 487
overeducation (see under overeducation)
reintegration in home country 463, 464–65, 466, 468–70, 476–87, 491–94, 697
self-employment (see under self-employment)
short-term unemployment 21–22, 463, 465, 491–92
return migration
benefits for home country 462, 494
determinants 462–65, 468, 476–87, 697
policy recommendations 494, 697
returning to parental home
“boomeranging” 334, 337–38, 351, 359–60
cross-country differences 337, 339–40, 342–44, 350–51, 352
determinants 337–38
employment effect 19, 334–35, 342–44
impact of Great Recession 19, 334–35, 339–40, 349–50, 352
partnership effect 19, 334–35, 342–44, 351, 352 See also leaving parental home
scarring
employment scarring and education level 562, 564, 566, 569–70, 572–73, 577–78, 582 (p.713)
employment scarring and ethnic group 560–61, 564–67, 569, 571–72, 575–79, 580, 583
employment scarring and family background 562, 568, 569–70, 573–75, 576
employment scarring and gender 560–62, 568–69, 571–72, 575, 576–79, 580
employment scarring and neighborhood context 562, 565–66, 568, 569–70, 574–75, 576–77, 582
income/wage scarring 117, 560, 562, 564–65
measurement of 569–70
occupational scarring and education level 562–63, 568–69, 571, 580–81, 582
occupational scarring and ethnic group 560–61, 568–69, 571–72, 575, 577, 580–82
occupational scarring and gender 560–62, 568–69, 571, 572, 575, 580–82
occupational scarring and neighborhood context 565–66, 574–75, 577, 582
stigmatization of 565–67
Schmid, Günther 9–11, 135–36, 694
Second Chance Schools (E2C) (France) 171, 175, 182, 185
sectoral distribution of youth employment
gender differences 34–35, 45, 51, 52, 449, 450
impact of Great Recession on 15, 35, 37, 38, 51–52, 56, 694–95
sector shares 15, 33, 34–35, 38, 45–51, 55–57, 605
youth-friendly sectors 15, 33, 34, 36–37, 47, 55–56
segmentation. See labor market segmentation
self-employment
autonomy in 23–24, 599, 611, 617–18, 619
bogus self-employment 23–24, 471–76, 599, 604, 608, 610, 617, 618–19
business success/failure in 611, 615–16, 617–18
career advancement in 607, 608, 618
caregivers in 450, 453
definition 598–99
employment quality in 597–98, 599, 600–1, 602, 606, 608, 611–15, 616, 617–18, 619
family responsibilities and 611–15
gender differences in 399–400, 598, 605, 606–7, 610, 618
gig economy 3, 597–98, 661–62, 675, 703
holiday leave in 599, 611
in ICT sector 602, 611, 617–19
institutional context for 604, 611
job-creation potential of 597–98, 602, 608, 610–11, 617, 618–19
labor law and 597–98, 599, 619
learning opportunities in 607, 616, 618, 619
migrant returnees in 471–76, 477, 482, 487, 488–89, 493–94
promotion 597, 598, 604, 611, 615, 617, 619
rates in Europe 39–40, 601–2, 603–4
satisfaction and 601, 607
sectoral distribution of 39–40, 602, 604, 605–6, 607, 611, 617–19
skills match/mismatch in 604, 607–8, 611, 616, 617, 618–19
social protection in 133, 134–35, 179, 425, 599, 602, 604, 608, 611, 616, 618, 619
solo self-employment 423, 424, 425, 429, 430, 434, 435, 436, 597–98, 599, 607, 610, 611, 695–96
transition to from unemployment 597, 604, 608–9, 618–19
work ethic in 611, 617, 618–19
working conditions in 606, 607, 618
working hours in 600–1, 606, 607, 611–15, 618, 619
work intensity in 601, 607, 618
services sector 3–4, 15, 34, 36, 605, 665
“sharing” economy 597–98, 619
shift-share analysis 15, 38–39, 40, 47–50, 51–52, 55–56
short-term unemployment 21–22, 81, 84, 148, 149, 463, 465, 491–92, 497, 519, 520, 522–23
short-time working 16, 138–39
sick pay for self-employed 599, 602, 611, 616, 618
signaling to employers 562–63, 566, 577–78 See also discrimination; stigmatization
skills
generalist (United Kingdom) 8, 422–23, 434
matching and mismatching (see occupational matching and mismatching)
specific (Germany) 422–23, 432
transferability 389–90, 392, 410–11, 412–13, 435 See also employability skills
social benefits, transferability 422, 436, 463, 466, 491–92, 493, 696–97
social enterprises 185, 445
social networks as labor market intermediaries 443–45, 451–52, 455–56
social reproduction. See family legacies
sole traders. See solo self-employment (p.714)
solo self-employment. See under self-employment
start-ups. See self-employment
stigmatization
of duration of previous unemployment 196–97, 204, 222
in employer recruitment practices 565–66
of ethnicity 565–67, 583
of gender 566, 567, 583
of previous employment status 119, 505–6, 565–66, 583 See also under NEET population; scarring
Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe. See STYLE project
STYLE project 104–5, 121
subsidized employment 74, 82, 84, 85, 86, 132–33, 147–48, 178, 275, 453, 618–19
supply-side policy measures 104–5, 109, 111–12, 121, 123, 154
supranational influence on policy 164, 170, 172, 178
TCNs (third-country nationals) 397–98, 419–20, 426, 430, 433–34
temporary contracts. See temporary employment
temporary employment 2, 15, 16, 18, 21, 54–56, 94, 138, 139, 238, 288–89, 391, 409–10, 428–29, 434, 671
temporary jobs. See temporary employment
third-country nationals. See TCNs
time-lag methodology 632
time-series approach 531–32, 533–34, 535–36, 539–42, 546, 556
trade unions
agents for positive attitude formation toward 666, 669–71, 674, 676, 678
attitudes and beliefs of young people toward 662, 665, 666–72, 676, 678
attitudes toward, generational difference in 660–61, 666–68, 669–70, 677–79
attractiveness for young workers 660–61, 663–64
exposure of young people to 661–62, 669–70, 671–73, 674, 678–79
knowledge of young people about 666, 668–69
membership in decline 422, 660, 662, 664–66, 678
membership in decline, possible reasons for 665–67, 678
membership, generation gap 662–64, 674, 678
membership, low youth rates 660, 663–64, 666–67, 678
membership, motives for 661, 669–70, 678
membership patterns in Europe 663–65, 667–68, 672–73, 678–79
membership, significance of early unionization 664, 665, 670–71, 678
membership, significance of STW transition regime 661–62, 666, 671, 672–73, 676–77, 678–79
membership, unmet demand for 668
public image of 668–69, 675–76
youth recruitment strategies and initiatives 660–62, 667, 673–76, 678
transferability. See under skills; social benefits
transitional labor markets 9–11, 135–36, 694
triple-helix governance 173, 177, 180–84
underemployment 4–5, 7, 118, 273, 288–89, 524–25, 618, 694
unemployment benefits for youth
duration of 111–12, 139, 144, 145, 146–47, 154, 155
levels of 142, 144–45, 146, 147–48, 155
unemployment rate dynamics 196, 197, 199, 223–24, 235
unions. See trade unions
values. See work values
varieties of capitalism typology 7–8, 33–34, 601, 604, 691–92
VET across school-to-work transition regimes 71–72, 73–76, 77–81, 82–83, 84–85, 86, 88, 94–95
VET and apprenticeships 93–94
vocational education and training. See VET
wage setting 8, 15–16, 33, 77, 535
well-being
economic well-being 19, 358, 360, 377
employment quality and 240, 273, 600, 619
impact of employment insecurity on 104–5, 117, 119–22
psychological well-being 117, 119–22
wholesale sector 45, 47, 50–51, 53, 55, 605, 671–72
work ethics 611, 617, 618–19, 629
workfare 72–73, 74, 164–65
work-first approach 74, 84, 184
working hours of self-employed 600–1, 606, 607, 611–15, 618
working-time accounts 107, 139
work intensity
of households 112, 287, 364, 369, 370, 372, 375, 381, 699
of self-employed 601, 607, 618 (p.715)
worklessness. See unemployment
work–life balance 411, 532, 611, 618
work values
age-based differences 24, 626–27, 629–30, 634–41, 642–46, 667, 692
attitudes of young people toward work 13–14, 296, 297, 311, 626–27, 629, 630, 647, 667, 704
birth-cohort-based differences 24, 626–27, 629–30, 634, 635–41, 642–46, 647, 667, 692
career and 629, 630, 637–41, 647
centrality of work 5, 24, 626–27, 629, 632–45
extrinsic 24, 647
gender-based differences 411, 641, 642–44
generation-based differences 14–15, 627, 629–30, 632, 641, 646, 647, 667
intrinsic 24, 647
in EU15 countries 642–46
in post-socialist countries 642–46
quantitative research on 628–29
remove commitment to employment 24, 629
satisfaction and 629, 630
time-period-based differences 24, 626–27, 629–30, 634–41, 642–46, 647, 667, 692
World Values Survey. See WVS
WVS (World Values Survey) 24, 629, 632–33
Youth Contract (United Kingdom) 84, 89, 171
Youth Employment Initiative (YEI) 508
youth employment shares 43–44, 47–51, 56
youth-friendly sectors 15, 33, 34, 36–37, 47, 55–56
Youth Guarantee (YG)
ALMP and 74, 88, 89, 97, 107–8
assessment of 89–90, 93, 108, 122, 689, 702
funding of 88, 90, 508
institutional change and 88–89, 90–91
national–local cooperation and 89–90, 91–92, 184–85
origins of 108, 508
PES reform and 88–89, 91
policy innovation and 89–90, 164, 171, 175, 178, 180–85, 186–87, 691
policy transfer and 91, 177, 188, 691
VET and 88–89, 97, 184, 224–25, 702
youth-intensive industries. See youth-friendly sectors
Youth on the Move 108, 443, 508
Youth Opportunities Initiative 108, 164–65, 508
youth participation rates 38, 40–43
youth underemployment 4–5, 7, 118, 272, 288–89, 694–95
youth unemployment rates 5, 6, 9, 10, 38, 40–43, 507, 601–2, 604
zero-hours contracts 84, 422, 676