The conclusion summarizes key findings of the empirical chapters and offers an answer to the core puzzle of the book about the rise of minority activism since the 1970s: it was global human rights ideas and institutions that transformed the movement actorhood of all three minority groups in Japan, galvanizing their activism and enabling their significant gains. The chapter also underscores the book’s theoretical contributions, pointing to the need to understand the capacity of global human rights to transform movement actorhood, rather than to assume rational actors with set interests, and illustrating the different patterns of impact of global human rights depending on the local actors’ starting position, thus offering a corrective to one-dimensional understanding of globalization as isomorphic forces shaping all local actors homogeneously. The local-to global-feedback loop is another contribution of this research, highlighting the mechanisms of norm consolidation and norm expansion in the international arena. The research also suggests important lessons for the future of global human rights.
Keywords: Movement actorhood, movement initiation, movement facilitation, movement reorientation, social movement outcomes, local-global feedback, global isomorphism, Japanese minority, global human rights
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