Cultural neuroscience is a research field that investigates the mutual influences of cultural and biological sciences on human behavior. Research in cultural neuroscience demonstrates cultural influences on the neurobiological mechanisms of processes of the mind and behavior. Culture tunes the structure and functional organization of the mind and the nervous system, including processes of emotion, cognition, and social behavior. Environmental and developmental approaches play an important role in the emergence and maintenance of culture. Culture serves as an evolutionary adaptation, protecting organisms from environmental conditions across geography. Cultural variation in the human mind, brain, and behavior serves to build and reinforce culture throughout the life course. This chapter examines the theoretical, methodological, and empirical foundations of cultural neuroscience and its implications for research in population health disparities and global mental health.
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