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Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology$
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Hans-Olov Adami, David J. Hunter, Pagona Lagiou, and Lorelei Mucci

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190676827

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190676827.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 19 October 2019

Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

(p.381) 16 Breast Cancer
Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology

Rulla Tamimi

Susan Hankinson

Pagona Lagiou

Oxford University Press

Most of the established reproductive risk factors for breast cancer, like age at menarche or parity, are not appropriate for public health intervention. Several lines of evidence, like the associations with birthweight and early exposure to radiation, support an important influence of early-life events on subsequent breast cancer risk. The best established modifiable risk factors for the disease include postmenopausal hormone use, moderate alcohol intake, and adult weight gain. More recently, we have come to appreciate that instead of a single disease, breast cancer is rather a heterogeneous group of subtypes with different etiologies. Yet the wealth of available epidemiologic information can be synthesized into a consistent and testable, albeit still hypothetical, causal model. With our increasing knowledge on the relation between endogenous hormones and breast cancer, and the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators, as well as aromatase inhibitors, chemoprevention will likely become more common in the future.

Keywords:   breast cancer, subtype, risk factor, early life exposure, mammographic density, estrogen, hormone, estrogen receptor modulator, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor

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