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Yes I Can, (Sí, Yo Puedo)An Empowerment Program for Immigrant Latina Women in Group Settings$

Catherine Fuchsel

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190672829

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190672829.001.0001

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Understanding Domestic Violence among Immigrant Latina Women

Understanding Domestic Violence among Immigrant Latina Women

Chapter:
2 (p.15) Understanding Domestic Violence among Immigrant Latina Women
Source:
Yes I Can, (Sí, Yo Puedo)
Author(s):

Catherine Fuchsel

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190672829.003.0003

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter examines domestic violence among immigrant Latina women, including prevalence and barriers to accessing services such as fear of deportation, lack of legal status, inability to speak English, and the challenges of separating from family members. Transnational elements for immigrant Latinas experiencing domestic violence is an important concept because of the implications in accessing services and support systems. In addition, help-seeking behaviors, barriers to reporting incidences of domestic violence, and understanding legal rights and services are discussed. Under the Violence Against Women’s Act, immigrant Latina women who lack legal status have legal rights in the United States and can apply for specific visas determining they were in a domestic violence–related relationship. Immigrant Latina women are also eligible to receive public benefits. Finally, an examination of domestic violence programs and interventions in community-based agencies is discussed, specifically, intervention programs for immigrant Latina women.

Keywords:   help-seeking behaviors, immigrant Latinas, legal rights, domestic violence programs, Violence Against Women’s Act

Available literature on immigrant Latina women and domestic violence (DV) focuses on prevalence and rates, help-seeking behaviors, the impact of immigration status on DV experiences, transnational elements and DV, types of support systems available to immigrant Latina women, barriers immigrant Latina women encounter as they access services (e.g., inability to speak the language or fear of deportation), and how cultural concepts such as familism, machismo, and marianismo likely contribute to immigrant Latina women’s experiences with DV (Edelson, Hokoda, & Ramos-Lira, 2007; Hancock, 2007a, 2007b; Hancock & Ames, 2008; Kasturirangan, Krishnan, & Riger, 2004; Perilla, 1999; Vidales, 2010).1

Prevalence and Barriers to Reporting

Approximately 1 in 4 (24.3%) U.S. women are severely assaulted (e.g., physical violence) and nearly half of all women (48%) experience psychological abuse by male partners each year (Black et al., 2011).2 Additionally, most U.S. women (69%) experience DV before the age of 25 (i.e., more DV incidents than any other age group; Black et al., 2011).3 DV is a prevalent problem for women living in the United States, yet little is known about how cultural dynamics influence DV experiences for immigrant Latina women. Within the past 10 years, researchers have begun to study DV experiences among the Latino population within a sociocultural context (i.e., race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, cultural concepts, religion; Brabeck & Guzmán, 2009; Kasturirangan, et al., 2004; Klevens et al., 2007; Vidales, 2010).4 By incorporating these factors in the study of DV, researchers and practitioners can gain different perspectives on the prevention and intervention of DV, resulting in a fuller understanding of the problem.

Statistical data on rates of DV among immigrant Latina women is limited because of underreporting to law enforcement agencies and the need for more refined categories in obtaining statistical data on the prevalence of DV among types of groups that fall under the umbrella of Latino/Hispanic (Edelson, Hokoda, & Ramos-Lira, 2007; Frias & Angel, 2005; Hancock, 2007a).5 Results from the National Violence Against Women Survey indicated that Latinos experience 23% of DV incidences in their lifetime (Klevens, 2007),6 and Latina women living in rural parts of the United States, 20% experience incidences of DV (Klevens, 2007).

Poverty, low education, poor English proficiency, a failure to understand mainstream U.S. cultural norms, and lacking immigration status are barriers to immigrant Latina women’s help-seeking behaviors (Brabeck & Guzmán, 2009; Frias & Angel, 2005; Vidales, 2010).7 In addition, women’s responses to abuse and how they manage incidences of DV vary by ethnicity for Latina women versus non-Latina women (Brabeck & Guzmán, 2008, 2009; Edelsen et al., 2007; Klevens, (p.16) 2007).8 For example, immigrant Latina women who lack legal status might be less likely to report incidences of abuse because of fear of deportation (Brabeck & Guzmán, 2009).9 With regard to immigrant Latina women’s experiences with DV, family social workers are encouraged to discuss the importance of responding to incidences of DV within a cultural perspective and how that plays a role in the outcome of how couples manage problems related to DV (Hancock, 2007a; Vidales, 2010).10

Help-Seeking Behaviors among Immigrant Latina Women

Gender roles and cultural traditions that do not encourage women’s empowerment or independence, lack of English proficiency, lack of culturally sensitive services for immigrant Latinas, and lack of immigration status are all barriers to the help-seeking behaviors for this population of women who are experiencing incidences of DV (Reina, Lohman, & Maldonado, 2014; Sabina, Cuevas, & Schally, 2012).11 Sabina et al. (2012), who examined help-seeking behaviors among victimized Latinas in a national sample (n = 714) of Latino women, found that 69% of the participants engaged in help-seeking behavior with informal resources (i.e., reaching out to family, friends, and clergy), but only 33% utilized formal resources (i.e., contacting the police department or programs in community-based agencies; Sabina et al., 2012).

Because members of the immigrant Latina population are less likely to seek help in formal organizations and entities, the Sí, Yo Puedo (SYP) curriculum and program is designed to serve this group in informal settings such as healthcare community clinics, faith-based organizations, or family service centers. Recruitment methods such as word-of-mouth and talking to family, friends, or clergy members (i.e., informal resources) about the SYP program have proven to be powerful techniques and positive recruitment methods in evaluation research. Immigrant Latina women who learned about the SYP program in these types of settings tended to encourage their friends to participate, whereas compared to a more formal programs and settings (e.g., outpatient mental health clinics, DV shelters, police departments), immigrant Latinas might hesitate to access formal resources (Sabina et al., 2012).12 Immigrant Latina women can participate in the SYP program even when they are not accessing formal resources and, importantly, regardless of their immigration status.

Because of the barriers in accessing formal resources, the need for the SYP curriculum and program is justifiable. The SYP program can be used to educate and empower immigrant Latinas to access formal resources. For example, as participants learn about healthy relationships and DV, the group facilitator teaches them how to access legal resources and how to contact police officers in severe DV incidences regardless of immigration status. Participants learn about orders of protection, U visas, and applying for a change in immigration status if they were victims of DV in past or current relationships.

Legal Services and the Impact of Immigration Status

Familiarity with the varied and diverse contextual circumstances affecting immigrant Latina women is critical for group facilitators. These include knowledge regarding DV among immigrant Latina women, prevalence and barriers (p.17) to reporting, help-seeking behaviors, legal services and the impact of immigration status, and transnational family concerns. By having this type of awareness, group facilitators can tailor the weekly topics to these kinds of experiences and offer support to those who might be experiencing these kinds of issues specifically.

Legal services

A handful of investigations have addressed immigrant Latina women’s experience with the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), legislation that aids women who lack immigration status with incidences of DV. Immigrant Latina women who lack immigration status can file for a U visa (i.e., an application for legal status to reside and work in the United States) if she can prove that she is in a good-faith marriage to a legal resident and is experiencing incidences of DV (Goldman, 1999; Parmley, 2004; U.S. Department of Justice, 2015).13 Despite this, the number of U visa applications filed remains low, perhaps because women in committed relationships are not legally married to U.S. citizens, lack knowledge about VAWA resources, lack transportation, or are afraid of deportation (Goldman, 1999; Parmley, 2004).14 In addition to VAWA providing legal resources to immigrant Latina women, other resources such as access to public benefits are available under the Immigration and Nationality Act (Broder, 2005).15

Immigration services and access to public benefits

Under the Immigration and Nationality Act, an immigrant who is a victim of DV may be able to apply for Suspension of Deportation or Cancellation of Removal (U.S. Department of Justice, 2015).16 Furthermore, under the guidelines of VAWA, immigrant Latina women and children may be considered for qualified immigrant status under the Welfare Act and might be eligible to apply for public benefits (Broder, 2005; Legal Momentum Advancing Women’s Rights, 2005),17 such as Social Security income, healthcare, and other types of aid, such as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (Broder, 2005; Legal Momentum Advancing Women’s Rights, 2005). As SYP program group facilitators discuss legal resources and information regarding immigration status and experiences of DV in the weekly sessions (i.e., Healthy Relationships and Domestic Violence sessions), immigrant Latina women learn more about their rights and are more empowered to access formal types of resources.

Transnational elements for immigrant Latinas experiencing DV

Another important consideration for immigrant Latina women is the transnational experiences of women who manage their families in two separate countries (e.g., the United States and Mexico).The term transnational migrant is used to identify a group of individuals who “live their lives across [national] borders” (Furman & Negi, 2007, p. 107).18 Immigrant Latina women from Latin America, Central America, Spanish-speaking islands such as Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, and Mexico often migrate to the United States for employment opportunities, to reunite with family members living in the United States, and to escape a DV relationship in their home country (Alcalde, 2010; Dominguez & Lubitow, 2008; Furman & Negi, 2007).19 Although the transnational experience for immigrant Latinas can oftentimes be a positive experience (p.18) (e.g., securing employment, keeping family ties intact despite the distance, providing financial assistance to family members in their home country), immigrant Latinas face challenges with living across two borders (Alcalde, 2010; Dominguez & Lubitow, 2008).

For example, in Dominguez and Lubitow’s (2008)20 study using ethnographic longitudinal interviews and participant observation with 11 Latin American women living in severe poverty, an important finding included the benefits of social support and family connections and minimal isolation in the lives of immigrant Latinas. Although there was a strong social support system, such as the ability to communicate with family members in two countries using the telephone, e-mail communication, and occasional visits to the home country, one participant in a DV-prone relationship experienced isolation. The participant’s partner was very controlling (e.g., screening phone calls), prevented the participant from making friends, and was verbally abusive. Despite the fact that the partner exhibited controlling behaviors, the participant reached out to family members for support in her home country.

Another challenge immigrant Latinas face living across borders while experiencing DV is deportation threats from their partners, a type of DV, when living in the United States (Alcalde, 2010).21 Immigrant Latina women often do not understand how these types of deportation threats can be seen as a type of DV. Finally, immigrant Latinas experience transnational parenting (i.e., parenting across borders as children are often left with family members in their home country; Alcalde, 2010). Immigrant Latina women maintain social ties and connections with their children with the hope of bringing their children to the United States in the near future.

Former participants in the SYP program often discussed concerns about transnational matters. As participants discussed types of social support and informal resources such as reaching out to family members, they described their challenges with family members living in other countries. It is important for group facilitators to understand and address transnational elements among immigrant Latina women as they teach in the weekly topics because it might require flexibility with the topic and successful facilitation of group dynamics. Openly addressing these important experiences (i.e., transnationalism) can offer a means for social support to those participants who self-disclose.

Domestic Violence Programs and Interventions in Community-Based Agencies

To date, there are limited number of intervention programs for women experiencing DV-related incidences with partners in non-community-based DV shelters or agencies with a focus on helping women manage DV-related incidences (Allen & Wozniak, 2011; McPhail, Busch, Kulkarni, & Rice, 2007; Whitaker et al., 2007.)22 Although few investigators have examined the benefits of support groups for Latina women in community-based DV shelters or agency settings, culturally competent programs for immigrant Latina women who cannot access community-based DV agencies or shelters are needed (Molina, Lawrence, & Azhar-Miller, 2009; Morales-Campos, Casillas & McCurdy 2009).23 Often, immigrant Latina women cannot access programs in community-based DV shelters due to language barriers, fear of deportation, or difficulties with separating from their family members (p.19) (Brabeck, & Guzmán, 2009; Klevens et al., 2007).24 The rapid growth of the Latino population within the United States necessitates an understanding of methods to decrease DV among this group.

Programs in community-based agencies

The majority of intervention efforts for women experiencing DV-related incidences with partners include empowering women through cognitive-behavioral changes to end a DV relationship (Allen & Wozniak, 2011; McPhail et al., 2007; Stover, Rainey, Berkman & Marans, 2008; Zust, 2006),25 known as crisis interventions (i.e., education on navigating the criminal justice system); safety planning; short-term counseling at women’s shelters; and support groups in community-based DV shelters or agencies (Allen & Wozniak, 2011; McPhail et al., 2007; Stover et al., 2008; Zust, 2006). Support groups conducted in community-based DV shelters or agencies use a specific educational curriculum to help women recover from a DV incident and increase self-esteem.

Programs outside of community-based DV shelters with specific curriculums exist but are rare. For example, Allen and Wozniak (2011)26 examined a 10-week group intervention model called Rites of Passage, which uses a holistic and integrative curriculum focusing on women’s self-development through stories, meditation, art therapy, self-reflection, and spiritual exercises. Using the Post-Traumatic Checklist as a pre- and posttest measure to assess the groups’ effectiveness, findings indicated a reduction in posttraumatic stress symptoms, and themes of recovery (i.e., establishing autonomy and developing inner peace) emerged. Zust (2006)27 used a phenomenological approach in a 20-week cognitive therapy program called INSIGHT (i.e., women learn positive thinking patterns that affect their perception of self). Findings indicated the women gained a deeper understanding of the self, and self-esteem increased, influencing their ability to develop goals free of violence.

Intervention programs for immigrant Latina women

One of few group-format programs designed to help immigrant Latinas understand DV within a cultural framework, Caminar Latino, Inc., uses ecological theory (i.e., understanding how environmental factors within larger systems influence romantic-relationship dynamics), feminist theory (i.e., understanding how power differentials between genders rooted in a patriarchal social system is the main cause of DV in society), and critical consciousness (i.e., an individual’s ability to examine how society and culture influence his or her self-image) as foundations in providing the intervention (Perilla, Serrata, Weinberg, & Lippy, 2012).28 Although the Caminar Latino, Inc. program is one intervention program specifically crafted with immigrant Latina women in mind, it is largely conducted in community-based DV shelters and agencies only. Thus it is important to develop more structured programs and curricula, which should be evaluated to assess their effectiveness, that can be used outside of community-based DV shelters or agencies. The SYP curriculum has undergone rigorous qualitative evaluation of the participants’ experiences with the program and is receiving positive results.

Despite the lack of structured step-by step educational programs for immigrant Latinas, other community-based agencies programmatically addressing DV have been established in the United States, such as the National Latin@ Network (NLN) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. The NLN is a national project situated (p.20) in Casa de Esperanza (i.e., shelter for immigrant Latina women) that focuses on DV within Latino communities (National Latin@ Network, 2015).29 The NLN provides advocacy, resources, leadership development, training, and community engagement opportunities to Latinas and Latino families. Researchers, advocates, and staff at NLN engage in state and federal policy advocacy to work toward ending DV among Latino families. In addition, the NLN provides training and consultation to DV-related programs and services (e.g., shelters) in community-based agencies in the United States and Latin America and conducts ongoing, culturally relevant research to increase social awareness of DV among Latino communities (National Latin@ Network, 2015).

The NLN also provides psycho-educational support groups to Latina women. Because the NLN project is not situated in a mental health setting with mental health practitioners who are experienced in individual and group therapy, a structured program such as the SYP curriculum might be useful in this type of setting. This is an example in which the SYP curriculum might be beneficial in DV-related shelters and community-based agencies locally and nationally.

Other specific curricula (e.g., support-group format in DV shelters or community-based agencies) are available for Latina women in the general population, but limited availability exists for immigrant Latina women (Molina et al., 2009; Morales-Campos et al., 2009).30 For example, Morales-Campos et al. (2009)31 conducted interviews with 30 Latina participants exposed to DV incidences in current relationships to examine the benefits of a Spanish-speaking support group: Women learned how to manage feelings and DV-prone partners in relationships and examined ways to become more self-sufficient. The need to develop culturally competent curriculums and programs outside of community-based DV shelters or agencies for immigrant Latina women is important because it will increase availability and access to immigrant Latina women who may be experiencing DV.

(p.22)

Notes:

(1.) Edelson, M. G., Hokoda, A., & Ramos-Lira, L. (2007). Differences in effects of domestic violence between Latina and non-Latina women. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 1–10. doi:10.1007/s10896-006-9051-1; Hancock, T. (2007a). Addressing wife abuse in Mexican immigrant couples: Challenges for family social workers. Journal of Family Social Work, 10, 31–50. doi:10.1300/J039v10n03_03; Hancock, T. (2007b). Sin papeles: Undocumented Mexicans in rural United States. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work, 22, 175–184. doi:10.1177/0886109906299048; Hancock, T. U., & Ames, N. (2008). Toward a model for engaging Latino lay ministers in domestic violence intervention. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 89, 623–630. doi:10.1606/1044-3894.3824; Kasturirangan, A., Krishnan, S., & Riger, S. (2004). The impact of culture and minority status on women’s experience of domestic violence. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 5, 318–332. doi: 10.1177/1524838004269487; Perilla, J. L. (1999). Domestic violence as a human rights issue: The case of immigrant Latinos. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21, 107–133. doi:10.1177/0739986399212001; Vidales, G. T. (2010). Arrested justice: The multifaceted plight of immigrant Latinas who faced domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 533–544. doi:10.1007/s10896-010-93095

(2.) Black, M. C., Basile, K. C., Breiding, M. J., Smith, S. G., Walters, M. L., Merrick, M. T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M. R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

(3.) Black, M. C., Basile, K. C., Breiding, M. J., Smith, S. G., Walters, M. L., Merrick, M. T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M. R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (p.21) (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

(4.) Brabeck, K. M., & Guzmán, M. R. (2009). Exploring Mexican-origin intimate partner abuse survivors’ help-seeking within their sociocultural contexts. Violence and Victims, 24, 817–832. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.24.6.817; Kasturirangan, A., Krishnan, S., & Riger, S. (2004). The impact of culture and minority status on women’s experience of domestic violence. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 5, 318–332. doi:10.1177/1524838004269487; Klevens, J., Shelley, G., Clavel-Arcas, C., Barney, D. D., Tobar, C., Duran, E. S., Barajas-Mazaheri, R., & Esparza, J. (2007). Latinos’ perspectives and experiences with intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 13, 141–158. doi:10.1177/1077801206296980

Vidales, G. T. (2010). Arrested justice: The multifaceted plight of immigrant Latinas who faced domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 533–544. doi:10.1007/s10896-010-93095

(5.) Edelson, M. G., Hokoda, A., & Ramos-Lira, L. (2007). Differences in effects of domestic violence between Latina and non-Latina women. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 1–10. doi:10.1007/s10896-006-9051-1; Frias, S. M., & Angel, R. J. (2005). The risk of partner violence among low-income Hispanic subgroups. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 552–564. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00153.x; Hancock, T. (2007a). Addressing wife abuse in Mexican immigrant couples: Challenges for family social workers. Journal of Family Social Work, 10, 31–50. doi:10.1300/J039v10n03_03

(6.) Klevens, J. (2007). An overview of intimate partner violence among Latinos. Violence Against Women, 13, 111–122. doi:10.1177/1077801206296979

(7.) Brabeck, K. M., & Guzmán, M. R. (2009). Exploring Mexican-origin intimate partner abuse survivors’ help-seeking within their sociocultural contexts. Violence and Victims, 24, 817–832. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.24.6.817

Frias, S. M., & Angel, R. J. (2005). The risk of partner violence among low-income Hispanic subgroups. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 552–564. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00153.x; Vidales, G. T. (2010). Arrested justice: The multifaceted plight of immigrant Latinas who faced domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 533–544. doi:10.1007/s10896-010-93095

(8.) Brabeck, K. M., & Guzmán, M. R. (2009). Exploring Mexican-origin intimate partner abuse survivors’ help-seeking within their sociocultural contexts. Violence and Victims, 24, 817–832. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.24.6.817; Brabeck, K. M., & Guzman, M. R. (2008). Frequency and perceived effectiveness of strategies to survive abuse employed by battered Mexican-origin women. Violence Against Women, 14, 1274–1294. doi:10.1177/1077801208325087; Edelson, M. G., Hokoda, A., & Ramos-Lira, L. (2007). Differences in effects of domestic violence between Latina and Non-Latina women. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 1–10. doi:10.1007/s10896-006-9051-1; Klevens, J. (2007). An overview of intimate partner violence among Latinos. Violence Against Women, 13, 111–122. doi:10.1177/1077801206296979

(9.) Brabeck, K. M., & Guzmán, M. R. (2009). Exploring Mexican-origin intimate partner abuse survivors’ help-seeking within their sociocultural contexts. Violence and Victims, 24, 817–832. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.24.6.817

(10.) Hancock, T. (2007a). Addressing wife abuse in Mexican immigrant couples: Challenges for family social workers. Journal of Family Social Work, 10, 31–50. doi:10.1300/J039v10n03_03; Vidales, G. T. (2010). Arrested justice: The multifaceted plight of immigrant Latinas who faced domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 533–544. doi:10.1007/s10896-010-93095

(11.) Reina, A. S., Lohman, B. J., & Maldonado, M. M. (2014). “He said they’d deport me”: Factors influencing domestic violence help-seeking practices among Latina immigrants. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(4), 593–615. doi:10.1177/0886260513505214; Sabina, C., Cuevas, C. A., & Schally, J. L. (2012). Help-seeking in a national sample of victimized Latino women: The influence of victimization types. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 40–61. doi:10.1177/0886260511416460

(12.) Sabina, C., Cuevas, C. A., & Schally, J. L. (2012). Help-seeking in a national sample of victimized Latino women: The influence of victimization types. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27, 40–61. doi:10.1177/0886260511416460

(13.) Goldman, M. (1999). The violence against women act: Meeting its goals in protecting battered immigrant women? Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 37, 375–392. doi:10.1111/j.174-1617.1999.tb01311.x; Parmley, A. M. (2004). Violence against women research post VAWA, where have we been, where are we going? Violence against Women, 10, 1417–1430. doi:10.1177/1077801204270682; U.S. Department of Justice. (2015). Application for cancellation of removal and adjustment of status for certain nonpermanent residents. Retrieved October 29, 2015, from Executive Office for Immigration Review: http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/pages/attachments/2015/07/24/eoir42b.pdf

(14.) Goldman, M. (1999). The Violence Against Women Act: Meeting its goals in protecting battered immigrant women? Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 37, 375–392. doi:10.1111/j.174-1617.1999.tb01311.x; Parmley, A. M. (2004). Violence against women research post VAWA: Where have we been, where are we going? Violence against Women, 10, 1417–1430. doi:10.1177/1077801204270682

(15.) Broder, T. (2005). Immigrant eligibility for public benefits. In Immigration & Nationality Law Handbook (pp. 759–782). Washington, DC: American Immigration Lawyers Association.

(16.) U.S. Department of Justice. (2015). Application for cancellation of removal and adjustment of status for certain nonpermanent residents. Retrieved October 29, 2015, from Executive Office for Immigration Review: http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/pages/attachments/2015/07/24/eoir42b.pdf

(17.) Broder, T. (2005). Immigrant eligibility for public benefits. In Immigration & Nationality Law Handbook (pp. 759–782). Washington, DC: American Immigration Lawyers Association; Legal Momentum Advancing Women’s Rights. (2005). Public benefits access for battered immigrant women and children. Retrieved from National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women: http://www.vawnet.org/summary.php?doc_id=1605&find_type=web_sum_GC

(18.) Furman, R., & Negi, N. J. (2007). Social work practice with transnational Latino populations. International Social Work, 50(1), 107–112. doi:10.1177/0020872807072500

(19.) Alcalde, M. C. (2010). Violence across borders: Familism, hegemonic masculinity, and self-sacrificing femininity in the lives of Mexican and Peruvian migrant. Latino Studies, 8(1), 48–68. doi:10.1057/lst.2009.44; Domínguez, S., & Lubitow, A. (2008). Transnational ties, poverty, and identity: Latin American immigrant women in public housing. Family Relations, 57(4), 419–430. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.stthomas.edu/stable/20456807; Furman, R., & Negi, N. J. (2007). Social work practice with transnational Latino populations. International Social Work, 50(1), 107–112. doi:10.1177/0020872807072500

(20.) Domínguez, S., & Lubitow, A. (2008). Transnational ties, poverty, and identity: Latin American immigrant women in public housing. Family Relations, 57(4), 419–430. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.stthomas.edu/stable/20456807

(21.) Alcalde, M. C. (2010). Violence across borders: Familism, hegemonic masculinity, and self-sacrificing femininity in the lives of Mexican and Peruvian migrant. Latino Studies, 8(1), 48–68. doi:10.1057/lst.2009.44

(22.) Allen, K. N., & Wozniak, D. F. (2011). The language of healing: Women’s voices in healing and recovering from domestic violence. Social Work in Mental Health, 9, 37–55. doi:10.1080/15332985.2010.494540; McPhail, B. A., Busch, N. B., Kulkarni, S., & Rice, G. (2007). An integrative feminist model: The evolving feminist perspective on intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 13, 817–841. doi:10.1177/1077801207302039; Whitaker, D. J., Baker, C. K., Pratt, C., Reed, E., Suri, S., Pavlos, C., Nagy, B. J., & Silverman, J. (2007). A network model for providing culturally competent services for partner violence and sexual violence. Violence Against Women, 13, 190–209. doi:10.1177/1077801206296984

(23.) Molina, O., Lawrence, S. A., & Azhar-Miller, A. (2009). Divorcing abused Latina immigrant women’s experiences with domestic violence support groups. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 50, 459–471. doi:10.1080/10502550902970561; Morales-Campos, D. Y., Casillas, M., & McCurdy, S. A. (2009). From isolation to connection: Understanding a support group for Hispanic women living with gender-based violence in Houston, Texas. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 11, 57–65. doi:10.1007/s10903-008-9153-3.

(24.) Brabeck, K. M., & Guzmán, M. R. (2009). Exploring Mexican-origin intimate partner abuse survivors’ help-seeking within their sociocultural contexts. Violence and Victims, 24, 817–832. (p.23) doi:10.1891/0886-6708.24.6.817; Klevens, J., Shelley, G., Clavel-Arcas, C., Barney, D. D., Tobar, C., Duran, E. S., Barajas-Mazaheri, R., & Esparza, J. (2007). Latinos’ perspectives and experiences with intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 13, 141–158. doi:10.1177/1077801206296980

(25.) Allen, K. N., & Wozniak, D. F. (2011). The language of healing: Women’s voices in healing and recovering from domestic violence. Social Work in Mental Health, 9, 37–55. doi:10.1080/15332985.2010.494540; McPhail, B. A., Busch, N. B., Kulkarni, S., & Rice, G. (2007). An integrative feminist model: The evolving feminist perspective on intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 13, 817–841. doi:10.1177/1077801207302039; Stover, C. S., Rainey, A. M., Berkman, M., & Marans, S. (2008). Factors associated with engagement in a police-advocacy home-visit intervention to prevent domestic violence. Violence Against Women, 14, 1430–1450. doi:1177/1077801208327019; Zust, B. L. (2006). Meaning of INSIGHT participation among women who have experienced intimate partner violence. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 27, 775–793. doi:10.1080/01612840600781170

(26.) Allen, K. N., & Wozniak, D. F. (2011). The language of healing: Women’s voices in healing and recovering from domestic violence. Social Work in Mental Health, 9, 37–55. doi:10.1080/15332985.2010.494540

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