This chapter describes kidney disorders related to occupational and environmental exposures and addresses prevention and control. Sections address assessment of kidney function, acute kidney injury, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Kidney disease from acute, high-level exposures as well as lower level exposures in combination with other CKD risk factors are considered. Established nephrotoxicants, including aristolochic acid, arsenic, cadmium, lead, melamine, mercury, silica, and solvents, are discussed. The limited data available on other agents, such as perfluorooctanoic acid and fine particulate matter, are also presented. The potential for kidney function to impact biomarker levels is considered. A final section addresses a current epidemic of CKD of unknown etiology in agricultural workers in specific countries.
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