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Occupational and Environmental Health$
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Barry S. Levy, David H. Wegman, Sherry L. Baron, and Rosemary K. Sokas

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190662677

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190662677.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 February 2020

Reproductive and Developmental Disorders

Reproductive and Developmental Disorders

24 Reproductive and Developmental Disorders
Occupational and Environmental Health

Linda M. Frazier

Deborah Barkin Fromer

Oxford University Press

This chapter describes reproductive disorders and developmental disorders, with a focus on their recognition and prevention. Certain hazardous exposures at sufficient doses during preconception among men and women have been shown to increase the risk for infertility, miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) and birth defects. Women’s exposures during pregnancy can cause fetal death, congenital anomalies, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Fathers’ occupational exposures can secondarily expose pregnant women through contamination of the home environment. Numerous chemical pollutants readily cross the placenta and are transmitted into breast milk. Prenatal and perinatal exposures have been linked to abnormal development of the immune system, childhood cancer, and learning disabilities. Specific examples, such as lead and dibromochloropropane, are provided in the chapter to illustrate general concepts. A final section addresses evaluation and control of risk.

Keywords:   reproductive disorders, developmental disorders, lead, dibromochloropropane, infertility, miscarriage, birth defects, fetal death, neurodevelopmental disorders, childhood cancer

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