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100 Years of the Nineteenth AmendmentAn Appraisal of Women's Political Activism$
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Holly J. McCammon and Lee Ann Banaszak

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190265144

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190265144.001.0001

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Women, Leadership, and the U.S. Environmental Movement

Women, Leadership, and the U.S. Environmental Movement

(p.312) 14 Women, Leadership, and the U.S. Environmental Movement
100 Years of the Nineteenth Amendment

Holly J. McCammon

Allison McGrath

David J. Hess

Minyoung Moon

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses modes of women’s leadership in the US environmental movement over the past one hundred years, expanding the definition of leadership beyond simply the formal head of large environmental organizations. During the early and mid-twentieth century, women-only organizations contributed to broadening the conservation movement, and a diverse set of women’s groups engaged in creating healthier environments in urban areas. Women’s leadership in contemporary environmentalism helped expand the movement by pushing gender, racial, ethnic, and class boundaries. Women became leaders of mainstream environmental groups, led efforts for environmental justice, developed ecofeminism, and participated in direct-action environmentalism. The chapter concludes that examining women’s environmental leadership reveals similarities and differences in women’s leadership over time, women’s ongoing struggles against traditional gender norms, the broad diversity of women leading in the movement, and women’s significant influence on the environmentalism and the environment itself.

Keywords:   women’s leadership, environmentalism, early conservation movement, environmental justice, ecofeminism, direct-action environmental groups

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