In 1903, Isham Hodge had farmed his own land in Black River Township, North Carolina, for 23 years. Up until a few years before, 63-year-old Hodge had likely also cast his vote in local and state elections. But at the end of the nineteenth century, the balance of power in the state shifted. By 1900, North Carolina had managed to disfranchise most African American men like Hodge through a constitutional amendment and registration changes....
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