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Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention$
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Michael Thun, Martha S. Linet, James R. Cerhan, Christopher A. Haiman, and David Schottenfeld

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190238667

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190238667.001.0001

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Socioeconomic Disparities in Cancer Incidence and Mortality

Socioeconomic Disparities in Cancer Incidence and Mortality

Chapter:
(p.141) 9 Socioeconomic Disparities in Cancer Incidence and Mortality
Source:
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Author(s):

Candyce Kroenke

Ichiro Kawachi

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190238667.003.0009

The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer is complex, dynamic, and evolving. Associations depend on SES measures, cancer type, sociodemographic factors including race/ethnicity, and historical trends. However, socioeconomic disadvantage is often associated with a higher risk of cancer, particularly cancers diagnosed at a late stage, as well as worse prognosis once diagnosed. Research on secular trends over the past 70 years has shown reversals of the socioeconomic gradient for lung and colorectal cancer consistent with differential trends by SES in patterns of smoking, diet, and obesity. Rates of these cancers are now currently higher in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. SES is considered to be a “fundamental” determinant of health outcomes, and this appears true throughout the cancer spectrum—from cancer incidence to detection, treatment, and survival. Investigations over the past decade have increasingly considered the simultaneous impact of individual SES and area-level SES (as a contextual influence) on health outcomes.

Keywords:   socioeconomic status, socioeconomic disadvantage, area-level SES, cancer incidence, race/ethnicity

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