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Coups and RevolutionsMass Mobilization, the Egyptian Military, and the United States from Mubarak to Sisi$
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Amy Austin Holmes

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190071455

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190071455.001.0001

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Revolutions and Coups

Revolutions and Coups

Chapter:
2 Revolutions and Coups
Source:
(p.iii) Coups and Revolutions
Author(s):

Amy Austin Holmes

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190071455.003.0002

Because the revolution in Egypt was directed at the state, it is important to properly conceptualize the state apparatus and the regime that ruled it. Thus, chapter 2 provides an overview of the literature on authoritarian regimes and explains why it is important to distinguish between states and regimes. Hosni Mubarak’s powerful presidency did not preclude the development of a diverse and unruly civil society, including tens of thousands of nongovernmental organizations. A new framework is employed in order to understand which parts of the state apparatus are most crucial during a period of revolutionary upheaval. It is important to distinguish between tools of the regime and pillars of support for the regime; the latter have the ability to either prop up or potentially withdraw their support. Mubarak relied on four pillars of regime support: the military, the business elite, the United States, and the acquiescence of the people. The chapter then turns to an overview of the literature on revolutions and military coups, which have usually been studied separately, as well as the literature on how establishing civilian control over the military constitutes the neuralgic point of democratic consolidation.

Keywords:   authoritarianism, civil society, states and regimes, civilian control of military

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