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Future BrightA Transforming Vision of Human Intelligence$
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Michael E. Martinez

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199781843

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199781843.001.0001

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What Is Intelligence?

What Is Intelligence?

(p.21) Chapter 2 What Is Intelligence?
Future Bright

Michael E. Martinez

Oxford University Press

This chapter examines the meaning of the word “intelligence.” It first emphasizes the distinction between IQ and intelligence and then asks whether intelligence is a unified entity or a diverse collection of intellectual capabilities by citing the competing theories of Charles Spearman and L. L. Thurstone. More specifically, it discusses Spearman's hypothesis of unified intelligence, which he supported by creating a diverse array of cognitive tests of language, music, perception, mental speed, and other abilities. It compares Spearman's hypothesis with that of Thurstone, who argued that intelligence consisted of an array of separate abilities such as memory, mathematical reasoning, and verbal comprehension. It also suggests that intelligence displays qualities of both unity and diversity—that is, intelligence is both one and many. The chapter concludes by assessing the hierarchical model of intelligence, along with the concept of fluid intelligence as opposed to crystallized intelligence, the so-called Raven's Matrices, and the role that will be played by intelligence in the workforce of the twenty-first century.

Keywords:   intelligence, IQ, Charles Spearman, L. L. Thurstone, cognitive tests, hierarchical model, fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, Raven's Matrices, workforce

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