The palm leaf axis is a complex organ divided into three discrete and disparate regions: leaf sheath, petiole, and rachis, each with a different function — basal support, blade extension, and blade support, respectively. Although this leads to different anatomical features there is a structural continuity from one to the other because they are developmentally continuous as a unit and vascular bundles extend from one region to another. This chapter first discusses the palm petiole, covering surface layers, peripheral sclerenchyma, V-arrangement, vascular bundles, ground tissue, and transverse veins. It then examines the unique attributes of leaf morphology in palms as a consequence of their frequently massive construction and great diversity. It covers monocotyledons, open and closed leaf sheaths, and the palm leaf sheath.
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