The Calamoideae, sister to all other Arecaceae, is the second most species-rich subfamily of palms, containing about 615 spp. within 21 genera. The subfamily is distributed throughout the wet tropics, and includes the great majority of climbing palms, most notable of which are the economically important rattans. Also well represented within the group are self-supporting palms, ranging in physiognomy from tall trees to shrub-like or acaulescent growth form. Despite variations in the habit and life history strategy of Calamoideae, the circumscription of the subfamily has remained stable since the earliest comprehensive classification of palms by Martius (1823–1850).This chapter discusses the anatomical features of the tribes Eugeissoneae, Lepidocaryeae, Calameae, and Salaccinae, along with the features of their corresponding subtribes.
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