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Chinese Social Policy in a Time of Transition$
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Douglas Besharov and Karen Baehler

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199990313

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199990313.001.0001

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Labor Migration, Citizenship, and Social Welfare in China and India

Labor Migration, Citizenship, and Social Welfare in China and India

Chapter:
(p.160) 9 Labor Migration, Citizenship, and Social Welfare in China and India
Source:
Chinese Social Policy in a Time of Transition
Author(s):

Josephine Smart

Reeta Chowdari Tremblay

Mostaem Billah

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199990313.003.0009

This chapter examines the very different outcomes of rural migration in China and India through a critical comparative analysis of state interventions (or lack of), conditions of social and economic disparity, and scale of long-term and return labor migration. The findings suggest that the household registration (hukou) system in China plays a key role in securing return migration and advancing rural development via remittances and transfers of knowledge, skills, and technology. In the absence of a household registration system and any government incentives for return migration in India, the rate of return migration among rural migrants has always been very low, and the overall contribution of out-migration to the rural economy and rural development has been limited at best.

Keywords:   China, India, labor migration, poverty reduction, rural development

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