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Chinese Social Policy in a Time of Transition$
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Douglas Besharov and Karen Baehler

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199990313

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199990313.001.0001

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Marriage, Parenthood, and Labor Outcomes for Women and Men

Marriage, Parenthood, and Labor Outcomes for Women and Men

Chapter:
(p.223) 12 Marriage, Parenthood, and Labor Outcomes for Women and Men
Source:
Chinese Social Policy in a Time of Transition
Author(s):

Yuping Zhang

Emily Hannum

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199990313.003.0012

Much of the discussion of gender and labor market outcomes in China in the reform era has focused on elements of the transition to markets as key, particularly issues such as rising returns to education and new discrimination against women. This research shows that women remain disadvantaged in education. This chapter, however, focuses on gender gaps in wage employment and income that are strongly related to work-family conflict. Following marriage and childbearing, women experience a more negative employment and income trajectory than do men. Rural residence also has negative implications for the employment and wage earnings of women and men. However, for those women who are employed, there is no additional penalty beyond that experienced by men for rural residence. Future research on gender disparities in labor market participation and earnings will benefit from incorporating family characteristics into analyses.

Keywords:   Gender disparities, wage employment, wage income, work-family conflict

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