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Breaking the PendulumThe Long Struggle Over Criminal Justice$
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Philip Goodman, Joshua Page, and Michelle Phelps

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780199976058

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199976058.001.0001

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Rehabilitation—All Things to All People

Rehabilitation—All Things to All People

(p.70) 4 Rehabilitation—All Things to All People
Breaking the Pendulum

Philip Goodman

Joshua Page

Michelle Phelps

Oxford University Press

Chapter 4 focuses on the struggle for “correctionalist” criminal justice in the decades following the First World War. Social-structural developments provided critical opportunities for correctionalists—who, along with a range of other actors, had fought against harsh, exploitative punishment in the interwar years—to gain power at the national level and within individual states. Yet, correctionalists faced intense opposition, even in California, the epicenter of the rehabilitative ideal. This struggle limited correctionalists’ success and created enormous friction that would later fuel the Golden State’s establishment of a more punitive penal regime. The chapter ends with an analysis of Florida, showing that influential actors there strategically employed the rhetoric of rehabilitation to bureaucratize and professionalize criminal justice. Although states such as Florida did not substantially implement the socio-medical model of rehabilitation, their use of correctionalist language helps us understand claims that the rehabilitative ideal dominated penal practice during this period.

Keywords:   punishment, penal development, rehabilitation, correctionalist, California, Florida, rehabilitative ideal, Big House, plantation prison

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