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Breaking the PendulumThe Long Struggle Over Criminal Justice$
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Philip Goodman, Joshua Page, and Michelle Phelps

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780199976058

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199976058.001.0001

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Reform and Repression in the Progressive Era

Reform and Repression in the Progressive Era

(p.42) 3 Reform and Repression in the Progressive Era
Breaking the Pendulum

Philip Goodman

Joshua Page

Michelle Phelps

Oxford University Press

This chapter focuses on criminal justice during the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, arguing that progressive punishment did not arise mechanically or represent an immediate, all-encompassing break from the past. It shows that a range of actors fought in the Gilded Age against harsh, exploitative penal practices, producing major fissures in the penal terrain. Macro-level changes in the early twentieth century produced political openings for competitors to spread what became known as the “new penology,” designed both to reform and repress. The chapter then turns to case studies of New York and Texas, showing that national and local factors shaped the nature of struggle in those states, and, consequently, the scope, character, and timing of “progressive” punishment.

Keywords:   Progressive Era, punishment, penal development, Gilded Age, progressives, new penology, New York, Texas, prison

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