Organ sale is illegal in every country except Iran but thriving black markets persist. This chapter examines medical tourism for the sale of organs—“transplant tourism”—its ethics, and its regulation. The first part of this chapter focuses on describing the existing trade and the problems it engenders. The second part discusses and evaluates the bioethical arguments for prohibiting or regulating the trade in light of this description. Here the chapter examines a series of arguments commonly deployed for prohibiting domestic organ sale: corruption, crowding out, coercion, exploitation, and paternalistic concern for prohibiting individuals from making choices they will later regret. It is this last argument, rather than the more frequently deployed other arguments, that the chapter argues gives the strongest argument for prohibiting or otherwise regulating transplant tourism. The third part of this chapter considers the regulatory interventions that have or could be tried to deal with the problems.
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